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Heart Stuff

Mr G

deoxygenated blood enters the heart through superior and inferior vena cava
which chamber does the blood pool into once it enters the heart right atrium
what does the blood pass through to get from the right atrium to the right ventricle tricuspid valve
blood is pumped from the right ventricle through which valve pulmonary semi lunar valve
the blood moves from the pulmonary semi lunar valve into what pulmonary arteries
from the pulmonary arteries the blood enters what the lungs
oxygenated blood travels from the lungs back to the heart through what pulmonary veins
which chamber does the oxygenated blood enter from the pulmonary veins left atrium
what does the blood pass through to get from the left atrium to the left ventricle bicuspid or mitral valve
blood passes from the left ventricle through which valve aortic semi lunar valve
the blood moves from the aortic semi lunar valve into what aorta
where does the blood travel to from the aorta to the rest of the body
systemic circulation when oxygenated blood travels from the heart throughout the body and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart
pulmonary cirulation when deoxygenated blood is carried away from the heart to the lungs and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart
myocardium thick muscular tissue of the heart
endocardium innermost layer of tissue that lines the chambers of the heart
pericardium outermost layer of the heart (contains the epicardium)
where is the heart located mediastinum
what are the holding and receiving chambers of the heart atriums
what are the pumping chambers of the heart ventricles
coronary circulation circulation of oxygen rich blood blood to the myocardium via the coronary arteries - the right coronary arteries supply blood to the right side of the heart and left supplies to the left side
why is the left side of the heart bigger because it pumps blood to most of the body (right side only pumps to the lungs)
RCA right coronary artery
what does the RCA do divides the right marginal artery and posterior descending artery - PDA or PIV - delivers blood to right side of heart, bottom portion of ventricles and back of septum
what does the LCA do supplies blood to left side of heart and front of septum (LAD/LCX)
LCA left coronary artery
blockage of the LCX and part of LAD are referred as the "widow maker"
collateral circulation network of tiny blood vessels that only open in a crisis situation
coronary arteries feed what the heart wall
coronary veins do what carry deoxygenated blood away from the heart wall and empty into the coronary sinus or sucius
how long is a cardiac cycle one minute
cardiac output volume of blood pumped by one ventricle in one minute
what is the primary pace maker of the heart SA node
heart rate of SA node 60-100bpm
heart rate of AV node 40-60bpm
heart rate of purkinje fibers 20-40bpm
two types of myocardial cells electrical and mechanical (electrical precedes mechanical)
polarization heart is in the rest state or refractory period (baseline)
refractory period time period when myocardial cell cannot respond to stimulus
depolarization when myocardial cells are contracting - systole
repolarization when mycardial cells are returning back to resting state - diastole
automaticity myocardial cells can initiate and maintain rhythmic impulse without neurological supply
excitability mycardial cells respond to impulse and react
conductivity mycardial cells relay the impulse to a neighboring cell
contracility myocardial cells contract and pump blood
steps of cardiac conduction system SA node-atrial depolarization-AV node-Bundle of HIS-R&L bundle branch-purkinjie fibers-ventricular depolarization-ventricular repolarization
normal bp less than 120/less than 80
prehypertension 120-139/80-89
hypertension - stage I 140-159/90-99
hypertension - stage II 160+/100+
hypertension crisis >180/>110
hypertension drug classes ACE Inhibitors, Beta Blockers, Diuretics, ARBS, Calcium Channel Blockers
diuretics remove water and sodium from body - reduces pressure on vessel walls - HCTZ
ACE Inhibitors decreases production of angiotensin II - "pril's"
Beta Blockers block norepinephrine and epinephrine and reduce heart rate - "lol's"
ARBS stops the binding of angiotensin II - "sartan's"
Calcium Channel Blockers prevents calcium from entering cells of heart and blood vessel walls - increase supply of blood and O2 to the heart - "pine's" & diltiazem
AAA abdominal aortic aneurysm - enlarged area of lower part of aorta - weakened wall. S&S=abd pain and pulsating
ACS acute coronary syndrome - myocardial infarction/heart attack. S&S=pain in jaw, arm, chest, SOB
AS aortic stenosis - when aoritic valve narrows and restricts blood flow from left ventricle to aorta. S&S=fainting & fatigue
arterioscleriotic heart disease ASHD - thickening and hardening of walls of coronary arteries - leads to CAD. S&S=mini strokes, ischemic attacks
artherosclerosis heart disease ASHD - hardening and narrowing of arteries - most common in legs
CAD coronary artery disease - accumulation of fatty deposits along innermost layer of coronary arteries. S&S=chest pain, light headedness, SOB
CHF congestive heart failure - heart muscle doesn't pump blood as needed (EKG)
JVD jugular venous distention (superior vena cava) - increase blood volume - interferes with filing of right atrium (on right side)
MR mitral regurgitation - leakage of blood backward through the mitral valve when left ventricle contracts
MVP mitral valve prolapse - when mitral valves do not close smoothly - leads to MR
PAD peripheral artery disease - narrowing of peripheral arteries to legs, stomach, arms and head - associated with artherosclerotic heart disease aka PVD (claudication)
PVD peripheral vascular disease - blood circulation disorder that cause blood vessels to narrow aka PAD
SBE subacute bacterial endocarditis - cause by a type of bacteria that occurs on damaged valves - fatal within 6 wks-1 year if untreated - rheumatic fever caused by strep throat
VSD ventricular septal defect - hole in spetum between ventricles - mainly affects children
CABG coronary artery bypass graft - type of surgery that improves blood flow to the heart
AICD automatic implantable cardioverter defibrilator - device place in chest or abdomen to help treat arrhythmias (V-Tach & V-Fib)
P-wave Atrial depolarization
T-wave Ventricular repolarization
QRS wave Ventricular depolarization
QRS duration How long it takes for ventricular contraction to occur - range= .04-.12 sec
PRI Travel time of electrical pulse from SA node to AV node
ST segment Start of the "S" wave to end of "T" wave - time frame from depolarization to repolarization
sinus large venous channel that pools deoxygenated blood into the R atrium
myocardial infarction aka heart attack is caused by lack of oxygen (ischemia) and causes death to the muscle tissues
Created by: gcjlentz
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