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LPN Intro A&P

Intro to Anatomy & Physiology and Medical Terms

cell fundamental unit of life
organization of the body - smallest to largest atoms, molecules, cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems
atoms and cells are the smallest units that make up the organelles of a cell
the shape and size of a cell depends upon the function of the cell ie. muscle cell, epithelial cell, fat cell, nerve cell
each cell is capable of performing all functions like a large organism
a number of similar cells performing the same function is known as a tissue
different tissues are muscle tissue, epithelial tissue, connective tissue, nerve tissue
a number of similar tissues working together to perform the same function is known are known as an organ (ie stomach)
a number of similar organs working together to perform the same function is known are known as a system (ie digestive system)
a number of similar systems working together to perform the same function is known are known as a system (ie the human body)
superior above a certain structure or location of the body
inferior below a certain structure or location of the body
ventral toward the belly or front of the body or structure
dorsal toward the back of the body or structure
medial toward the middle, body midline or in the center of the body
lateral on the side of the body or structure
intermediate between two organs, objects or points of the body
ipsilateral on the same side of the body or structure
contralateral on opposite sides of the body or structure
proximal toward an origin of a structure or closest to the body midline ie shoulder is proximal to body
distal farther away from an origin of a structure of the body midline ie wrist is distal to shoulder
superficial toward the surface of a structure or body
deep away from the surface of a structure or a body
anterior toward the front of the body of a structure or a body
posterior toward the rear of a structure or body
supine lying on the back
prone lying on the stomach
planes of the body are imaginary flat surfaces dividing the body from different sides
frontal or coronal a vertical plane dividing a bilaterally symmetrical body, structure or organism into anterior and posterior sections (ie front and back halfs)
sagittal a vertical plane that divides a bilaterally symmetrical body, structure or organism into two left and right equal halves (ie mirror image halves)
parasagittal a vertical plane that divides a bilaterally symmetrical body, structure or organism into two left and right unequal halves
transverse (cross-sectional) a plane passing through a body, structure or organism that is at a 90 degree angle to the long (generally vertical) axis of the structure
oblique a plane passing through a body, structure or organism that is at an angle other than 90 degrees to the long (vertical) axis of the body
body cavities are spaces within the body the contain internal organs (viscera)
dorsal cavities toward the back of the body - cranial cavity and spinal cavity
cranial cavity contains the brain and the pituitary gland
spinal cavity contains the spinal cord
ventral cavities toward the front of the body - thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities
thoracic cavity contains the lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchial tubes, thymus gland and aorta
abdominal cavity contains the stomach, small and large intestines, spleen, pancreas, liver and gallbladder
pelvic cavity contains portions of the small and large intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, urethra, ureters, uterus, and the vagina
the thoracic and abdominal cavities are separated by a muscular wall like structure called the diaphragm
andominopelvic cavity is the abdominal and pelvic cavities - they do not have a separation (like a diaphragm), only an imaginary line to separate them
digestive system consists of the digestive tract and four accessory organs connected by ducts - salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder - that secrete substances into the tract that aid in the processes of digestion and absorption
digestive tract is also called alimentary canal, or the gastrointestinal tract and extends from the mouth to the anus
different regions of the digestive tract the oral cavity, the throat called pharynx, the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine or colon
the three sections of the small intestines are the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum
the digestive system converts food into nutrients by three processes ingestion, digestion and excretion
urinary system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, and one urinary bladder
main function of the urinary system to remove nitrogenous wastes that are produced in the body when proteins combine with oxygen
urea wastes that are filtered from the blood and removed from the kidneys as a water soluble waste
two functions of the kidneys are removing urea from the blood, maintain the proper balance of water, salts and acids in the body fluids
the kidneys act as endocrine organs and secrete two hormones rennin and erythropoietin
an active form of which vitamin is secreted by the kidneys Vitamin D
which two hormones are degraded and excreted from the bloodstream by the kidneys insulin and parathyroid
urine is produced in three steps filtration, reabsorption, secretion
urinary bladder stores urine until it is expelled out by a process called micturition or voiding
female reproductive system is made up of uterus, the female gonads called ovaries, fallopian tubes (uterine tubes), vagina, and external genitalia
the uterus is a hollow, muscular sac, roughly the size of fist and shaped like an upside down pear.
the mammary glands are two accessory organs which produce and secrete milk after childbirth
fallopian tubes one on each side of the uterus transport the ova (egg) from the ovaries to uterus
male reproductive system is made up of the male gonads (testes), the male reproductive tract, accessory glands and external genitalia
the testes (testicles) are responsible for the production of the sperm, and the production of the male hormone testosterone
the male accessory reproductive glands are two seminal vesicles, prostate gland, two bulbourethral glands (Cowper's glands). The secretions from these glands, along with the sperms form a fluid called the semen
the male external genitalia consists of the scrotum and the penis
cranial nervous system nerves go from the brain to the eyes, mouth, ears and other parts of the head
central nervous system nerves are in your brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system nerves go from spinal cord to your arms, hands, legs and feet
autonomic nervous system nerves go from your spinal cord to your lungs, heart, stomach, intestines, bladder and sex organs (all the main functioning organs)
the nervous system consists of the central nervous systems (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS)
the CNS (central nervous system) consists of the brain and spinal cord. The brain receives data, processes it and initiates a response. The spinal cord carries information back and forth between the brain and the PNS
the PNS (peripheral nervous system) consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves
cranial nerves arise directly from the brain, and supply the head and neck regions
peripheral nerves arise from the spinal cord and carry messages to the CNS from the trunk and extremities
the respiratory system composed of the nose and nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, the bronchi and lungs
inspiration the breathing in of air into the lungs
expiration the breathing out of air from the lungs
respiration inspiration and expiration together
external respiration the exchange of gases in the lungs (ie oxygen enters the blood and carbon dioxide leaves the blood)
internal respiration the exchange of gases in the tissues (ie oxygen leaves the blood to enter the tissues and carbon dioxide leaves the tissues to enter the blood)
the skeleton is the support forming the framework of the body onto which everything else is attached - thus protecting the underlying soft tissues like heart and lungs
to allow the movement of the joints bones along with muscles, tendons and ligaments
bones are store houses of calcium and phosphorous
red bone marrow produces blood cells
muscles are important because they not only enable us to walk, run, lift ect. they are necessary for all body functions like breathing and movement of the digestive tract
the skin is the largest organ of the body
integumentary system includes the skin, hair, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, and nails
integument means covering
the skin consists of 3 layers epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous fatty layer
the dermis consists of connective tissue, hair follicles, sweat glands, blood vessels and nerve endings
the subcutaneous tissue does what helps maintain the temperature of the body
melanocytes cells that contain a black pigment that gives our skin its color
the "sense" organs are the eye, ear, skin, taste buds, and nose
the eye does what enables us to see near and distant objects in quick succession with a feature called accommodation
the eye a sphere with an outer layer (sclera), a middle layer (choroid) and an inner layer (retina)
the sclera maintains the shape of the eye
the choroid is the vascular layer
the retina is the sensitive layer that enables us to see
the ear does what enables us to hear and also maintain our balance
the ear is made up of three distinct sections - the external ear, the middle ear and the internal ear
the external ear receives sound waves that vibrate the eardrum, which in turn vibrates the three small bones in the inner ear that are in contact with the oval window of the inner ear
the cochlea picks up the sound waves which transmits them to the brain through the cochlear nerve
2 components of the cardiovascular system the heart and the blood vessels
largest connective tissue of the body blood ? I think it's blood vessels
the blood is pumped by the heart into the blood vessels of the cardiovascular system - delivering oxygen, heat and essential nutrients to every cell in the body
the heart is a muscular organ located in the chest that is the pump helping circulate blood all over the body
the arteries carry blood away from the heart to body tissues
the veins carry the blood back to the heart from the body tissues
hemopoiesis formation of the blood cells
before birth - the production of blood cells are formed in the liver, spleen, and a few in the thymus, lymph and bone marrow
after birth - the production of blood cells are mostly done in the red bone marrow, but some white blood cells are produced in lymph nodes and the spleen
stem cell also called hemopoietic stem cell or hemocytoblast - all the different blood cells develop from this type of cell
when a stem cell divides one of the daughter cell remains as a stem cell, the other becomes any one of the other types of blood cells
the blood volume is made up of 45% blood cells and 55% plasma
plasma is made up of mainly water with proteins, sugar, salts, hormones, and vitamins floating in it
the three main types of blood cells are erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells) and thrombocytes (platelets)
the erythrocytes red blood cells - disc shaped, help carry oxygen to the tissues
the leukocytes white blood cells - helps protect the body by attacking the foreign antigens and dispose of dead and dying cells and other tissue debris
the five types of leukocytes are neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes
the thrombocytes are tiny fragment like cells and help in the clotting of blood
lymphatic system consists of a system of fine vessels that have a fluid called lymph running through them and the lymph nodes
lymph means clear spring water - when fluid found in the spaces around tissue cells is picked up by the lymph vessels. Does not contain any red blood cells, platelets and very few proteins
lymph nodes collections of lymphoid tissue along the route of the lymphatics
lymph nodes produce white blood cells called lymphocytes which protect the body by producing antibodies
phagocytes are white blood cells present in lymph nodes that swallow and destroy bacteria in the lymph
two accessory organs of the lymphatic system are thymus gland and spleen
thymus gland helps in the production of antibodies
the spleen helps in storage blood cells and removal of old red blood cells and microorganisms like bacteria
the endocrine system consists of a number of glands that secrete their secretions called hormones directly into the bloodstream
hormone means urging on
hormones are chemical substances that are transported to their target organs through the bloodstream and regulate various functions of an organism
the pituitary gland called the "master" endocrine gland - it produces a number of hormones that act on the other endocrine glands to regulate their secretions and function
hormones work by binding to receptor sites in their target organs very much like a key fitting into a lock
a- an- without, not, lack of, absent, deficient
ab- away from
abdomin/o abdomen
acous/o hearing, sound
-ac pertaining to
acr/o acromin/o extreme ends of a part, especially on extremities
actin/o relationship to raylike structures or x-rays or some other type of radiation
-acusis hearing
ad- to, toward, near, added to
aden/o gland
adenoid/o adenoids
adenex/o structure, next to
adip/o fat
adren/o adrenal/o adrenal gland
aer/o air
agglutin/o clumping, sticking together
-agogue inducing, leading, stimulating
-agon to assemble, gather
-al pertaining to
albin/o white
albumin/o albumin (protein)
alges/o, algi/o- , algesi/o pain
-algesia sensitivity to pain
-algia pain, painful condition
alveol/o alveolus, air sac, small sac
amb-, ambi-, ambo- both, on two sides
angi/o vessel
anis/o unequal
an/o anus
ante- before, forward, in front of
anter/o position ahead of or in front of
anti- against, to prevent, suppress or destroy
aort/o aorta
append/o, appendic/o appendix
aque/o water
-arche beginning
arter/o, arteri/o artery
arthr/o joint, articulation
articul/o joint, articulation
-arthria articulate (speak distinctly)
-ary pertaining to
-ase enzyme
-asis condition, usually abnormal
-asthenia lack of strength
ather/o plaque, fatty substance
atri/o atrium, upper heart chamber
audi/o sound, hearing
aur/o ear
auricul/o ear
auto- self
axill/o armpit
azot/o urea, nitrogen
bacteri/o bacteria
balan/o glans penis
bas/o base, opposite to acid
bi- double, two, twice
bili/o, bil/l bile, gall
bilirubin/o bilirubin
bi/o life, living organism
blast-, blast/o, -blast early stage, immature cell or bud
bleph-, blephar-, blephar/o eyelid, eyelash
brachi/o arm
brachy- short
brady- slow
bronch/o, bronchi/o, bronchio/o bronchus, bronchi
bucc/o cheek
burs/o bursa (sac of fluid near the joint)
calc/o calcium
cali/o, calic/o calyx (in the kidney)
capn/o carbon dioxide
-capnia carbon dioxide
carcin/o cancer
cardi/o heart
carp/o wrist bones (carpals)
caud/o tail, lower part of the body
caus/o burn, burning
cauter/o heat, burn
cec/o cecum (a pouch connected to the junction of the small and large intestines)
-cele hernia, herniation, pouching, swelling; enlarged space or cavity
celi/o, cel/o belly, abdomen
-centesis relating to 100 (used in naming units of measurements)
centi- relating to 100 (used in naming units of measurements)
cephal/o head
cerebell/o cerebellum, posterior part of the brain
cerebr/o brain
cervic/o neck
cheil-, cheil/o, chil/o lips
cheir-, cheir/o (also written chir-, chiro-) hand
-chezia defecation, elimination of wastes
choledoch/o common bile duct
chlorhydr/o hydrochloric acid
choir/o, chorion/o chorion, outermost membrane of the fetus
cholesterol/o cholesterol
cholangi/o bile vessel
chol-, chol/e, cholo- bile gall
chol/e, chol/o bile
cholecyst/o gallbladder
chondr/o cartilage
cib/o meal
-cid, -cide to cut (killer)
circum- around
cirrh/o orange-yellow
cis/o to cut
-clasis to break
-clast to break
cleid/o clavicle
-clysis irrigation, washing
coagul/o clotting, coagulation
col/o, colon/o colon, large intestine
colp-, colp/o vagina
comat/o deep sleep
comi/o to care for
coni/o dust
conjuntiv/o conjunctiva (lines the eyelids)
contra- against, opposite
cor/o, core/o pupil
coron/o crown, heart
cortic/o cortex, outer region
cost/o rib
counter- against, opposite to
crin/o secrete
-crine secrete, seperate
cry-, cry/o low temperature
crypt-, crypt/o hidden, concealed
cutane/o, cut/o skin
-cusis hearing
cyan/o blue
cycl/o ciliary body of the eye, cycle, circle
-cyesis pregnancy
cyst/o bladder, cyst
cyst/o sac, bladder
-cyte cell
cyt/o cell
-cytosis condtion of cells, slight increase in cells
dacry/o tear
dactyl/o digits (usually fingers but sometimes toes)
de- down, from, remove
dendr/o tree
dent/o tooth
derma-, derm-, derm/o, dermat/o skin
-desis to bind, tie together
di-, dipl/o twice, double
dia- across, through, apart
diaphor/o sweat
digit/o digit
dips/o thirst
dis- apart, free from, far, distant
dorsi-, dors/o back (in the human, this combining form refers to the same regions as postero-)
duct/o to lead, carry
duoden/o duodenum
dur/o dura mater
-dynia pain, tenderness
dys- bad, difficult, abnormal
-ectasia stretching, dilation, expansion
-ectasis dilation, stretching
ecto- outer, outside
-ectomy, -ectomize excision, surgical removal of
-em in
-emesis vomiting
-emia blood condtion
en-, endo- in, into, within
encephal/o brain
endo- inner, inside
enter/o intestines
eosin/o rosy, dawn-colored
epi- over, on , upon
epididym/o epididymis
epiglott/o epiglottis
episi/o vulva, external female genetalia
erythem/o, erythemat/o flushed, redness
erythr/o red
esophag/o esophagus
-esis condtion
esthes/o nervous sensation (feeling)
-esthesia, esthesi/o nervous sensation
estr/o female
eu- normal, good, well, healthy
ex-, exo- out, out of, from, away from
extra- beyond, outside of, in addition to
fasci/o fibrous connective tissue layers
-ferent to bear, to carry
fibr/o fibre, fibrous, threadlike structures, fibres
-flexion process of bending
furc/o division, fork
galact/o milk
gastr/o stomach
gangli/o, ganglion/o ganglion, collection of nerve cell bodies
-gen an agent that produces or originates
-genesis development, production, creation
-genic producing, causing
genit/o organs of reproduction
geno- a relationship to reproduction or sex
-geny manner of origin, development or production
gingiv/o gum
glauc/o grey
gli/o, -glia gluey material; specifically, the connective tissue of the brain
-globin, -globulin protein
glomerul/o glomerulus
gloss/o tongue
gluc/o sweetness, glucose
glyc/o, glycogen/o, glycos/o sugar
-gnath, gnath/o related to the jaw
gon/o seed, knee
gonad/o sex glands
-gram record
granul/o granule(s)
-graph a diagram, a recording
-graphy process of making/taking a record
-gravida pregnant woman
gravid/o pregnancy
gynec/o woman
hemat/o blood
home/o sameness, unchanging, constant
hem/o blood
hemoglobin/o hemoglobin
hemi- half
hepat/o, hepatic/o liver
herni/o hernia
heter/o other, different
hist/o, histi/o tissue
home/o, homo- unchanging, the same
hydr/o, hidr/o water
hyper- excessive, too much, high
hypo- under, decreased, less than normal
hyster/o uterus
-ia state of
-iasis condition of
iatr/o physician, treatment
-iatrics medical practice, specialties
-ic pertaining to
-ichthy/o dry, scaly
idi/o separate, distinct, unknown, individual self, one's own
ile/o ileum
ili/o ilium
im- in, into, lacking, within, not
immun/o immune, protection, safe
in- in, into, lacking, within, not
-in substance
-ine pertaining to
infra- below, beneath
ir/o, irid/o iris (colored portion of the eye)
integument/o covering
inter- between
intra- into, within
-is pertaining to
ischi/o ischium (part of the hip bone)
-ism a condtion, state of
is/o same, equal
-itis inflammation
-ive pertaining to
jejun/o jejunum
juxta- next to
kal/i potassium
kary/o nucleus
kerat/o cornea of the eye, certain horny tissues
kines/o, kinesi/o movement
-kinesia, -kinesis movement
labi/o lip
lacrim/o tear
lact/o milk
lapar/o abdomen, loin or flank
laryng/o larynx
-lepsy seizure
lept/o thin, slender
leuk/o white
ligament/o ligament
lingu/o tongue
lip/o fat
-listhesis slipping
lith/o stone
-lithiasis condition of stone
-lithotomy incision for removal of a stone
lob/o lobe
-logy the study of
-lex/o word, phrase
lumb/o lower back, loin
lymph/o lymph
lymphaden/o lymph gland, node
-lysis destruction of, decomposition
lys/o, lysis flowing, loosening, dissolution
-lytic to reduce, destroy, separate, breakdown
macro- large
mal- bad, illness, disease
malac/o, malacia- softening
mamm/o breast, mammary gland
mast/o mammary gland, breast
mastoid/o mastoid process (behind the ear)
maxill/o maxilla (upper jaw bone)
meat/o meatus, opening
medull/o medulla, inner section, middle, soft, marrow
mediastin/o mediastinum
mega- large
-megaly enlargement
melan/o black
men/o menstruation
mening/o, miningi/o membranes covering the brain and spinal cord
mes-, mesa-, meso- middle, midline
meta- change, beyond
-meter measuring instrument
metr/o uterus
-metry measurement
micro- small
mi/o smaller, less
mon/o one, single
mort/o, -mortem death
multi- many
muscul/o muscle
myc/o fungus
mydr/o wide
myel/o spinal cord, bone marrow
my/o muscle
myring/o tympanic membrane, eardrum
myx/o mucus
narc/o numbness, stupor, sleep
nas/o nose
natr/o sodium
necr/o death
necr/o death, corpse
neo- new
nephr/o kidney
neur/o nerve
neutr/o neither, neutral
noct/i- night
non- not
nos/o disease
nulli- none
nyct/o night
ocul/o eye
odont/o tooth
-oid likeness, resemblance
olig/o small,scant, few, a deficiency of
-ole small, little
-oma tumor, swelling
-one hormone
onych/o nails
oophor/o ovary
opthalm/o eye
-opia. -opsia vision
opt/o, optic/o eye, vision
orch/o, orchi/o, orchid/o testis
-orexia apptetite
or/o mouth
orth/o straight, normal, correct
oscill/o, ossicul/o to swing to and fro
-ose full of, pertaining to, sugar
-osis condition
-osmia smell
oste/o bone, bone tissue
-ostomy creating a new opening
-otia ear condition
ot/o ear
-ous pertaining to
ovari/o ovary
ov/l, ov/o, ovul/o egg
oxy- swift, sharp, acid
ox/o oxygen
-oxia pertaining to oxygen
palat/o palate (roof of mouth)
palpebr/o eyelid
pan- all
pancreat/o pancreas
papill/o nipple-like, optic disk (disk)
par- other than, abnormal
para- beside, beyond, after, near, apart from
-para to bear, bring forth, live births
-paresis weakness
-pareunia sexual intercourse
-parous to bear, bring forth
parathyroid/o parathyroid glands
-partum birth, labor
path/o disease, abnormal condition
-pathy disease
pect/o, pector/o chest
ped/o, pedia- child, foot
pelv/l pelvis bone
-penia lack, deficiency
-pepsia digestion
per- by, through, excessively
peri- around
pericardi/o pericardium, membrane surrounding the heart
peritone/o peritoneum
pexy fixation
phag/o to eat, to injest
-phagia, -phag/o eating, swallowing
pharyng/o pharynx
-phasia speaking, ability to talk
phil/o like, love, attraction to
-phil, -philic, philia to be fond of, to like (have an affinity for)
phleb/o vein
-phobia an exaggerated fear
phon/o, -phonia voice, sound
-phoresis carrying, transmission
phot/o light
phren/o diaphragm, ,mind
physi/o nature, function
-physis, phys/o to grow
pil/o hair, resembling hair
pituitar/o pituitary gland
-plasia development, formation
-plakia plaque
plas/o development, formation
-plasty surgical repair or reshaping
-plegia paralysis, palsy
-plegic paralysis, palsy
pleur/o serous membrane covering the lung and lining the chest cavity
-pnea breathing, respiration
pneum/o, pneumon/o lung, air, gas
pod-, pod/o foot
-poiesis making, forming
-poietin substance that forms
poikil/o varied, irregular
polio- gray
poly- many, much
pont/o pons, a part of the brain
-porosis condition of pores (spaces)
post- after, behind
-praxia action
-prandial meal
pre- before, in front of, prior to
presby/o old age
primi- first
pro- before, in front of
proct/o rectum
prostat/o prostate gland
prote/o protein
pseudo- false
psych/o mind
-ptosis falling, sagging, dropping, down
-ptysis spitting
pulmon/o lung
py/o pus
pyel/o kidney pelvis
pyl/o, pylor/o pylorus, pyloric sphincter
quadri- four
radi/o emission of rays or radiation
radicul/o nerve root
re- again, backward
rect/o rectum
ren/o kidney
reticul/o network
retin/o retina
retro- backward, behind
rhin/o nose
-rrhage, -rrhagia excessive flow
-rrhaphy stitching, suturing
-rrhea profuse flow, discharge
salping/o eustachian tube, uterine tube
-salpinx fallopian tube, oviduct
sangui/o blood
sarc/o flesh
scler/o, sclerosis hardness, hardening
scoli/o twisted, crooked
-scope examination instrument
-scopy examination using a scope
scot/o darkness
scrot/o scrotum
seb/o sebum
sebace/o sebum
semin, semin/l, semin/o semen, seed
semi- half, partial, mild
sial/o saliva
sialaden/o salivary gland
sider/o iron
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
sinus/o sinus
somat/o body
son/o sound
-spasm, spasm/o sudden contraction of muscles
splen/o spleen
sperm/o, spermat/o sperm
spher/o round, globe-shaped
-sphyxia pulse
sphygm/o pulse
spin/o spine (backbone)
spondyl/o vertabra (backbone)
staped/o stapes (middle ear bone)
-stasis maintence, maintaining a constant level
stat/o stop, stand still, remain at rest
steat/o fat, sebum
sten/o, -stenosis narrow, constriction, contracted
ster/o solid structures, steroid
stern/o sternum
steth/o chest
sthen/o, -sthenia strength
stomat/o mouth
-stomy, -ostomy creation of an opening
sub- under, beneath
sud/o, sudor/o sweat
super- above, over, excess
supra- above, over
sym- together, with
syn- together, with
syncop/o to cut off, cut short, faint
synov/o synovia, synovial membrane, sheath around a tendon
syring/o fistula, tube, cavity
tachy-, tach/o fast, rapid
tarso- eyelid, foot
tax/o, -taxia, -taxis order, arrangement
ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o tendon
tens/o stretch, pull
tens/o, tension pressure
terat/o monster, malformed fetus
thalam/o thalamus
tel/o complete
tele/o distant
the/o put, place
thec/o sheath
thel/o nipple
test/o testis, testicle
tetra- four
therm/o, -thermy heat
thorac/o chest
-thorax chest (pleural cavity)
thromb/o clot, thrombus
thyr/o, throid/o thyroid gland
-tocia labor, condition of birth
toc/o labor, birth
-tome instrument to cut
-tomy, -otomy incision, process of cutting into
tonsill/o tonsils
toxic-, toxic/o poison, poisonous
tox/o poison
trache/o trachea (windpipe)
trans- across, through
-tresia opening
tri- three
trich/o hair
trigon/o trigone (area within the bladder)
-tripsy to crush
thromb/o clot
-tropin stimulate, act on
troph/o, -trophy nutrition, nourishment, development
-tropia to turn
-tropic turning toward, influencing, changing
tympan/o tympanic membrane (eardrum), middle ear
-ule small, little
ultra- beyond or excessive
-um structure, thing, tissue
umbilic/o umbilicus (navel)
uni- one
-uresis urination
ureter/o ureter
uter/o uterus (womb)
urethr/o urethra
-uria condition of the urine, urine
urin/o urine
ur/o urine, urinary tract, urination
-us structure, thing
uve/o uvea, vascular layer of the eye (iris, choroid, and ciliary body)
vag/o vagus nerve
valv/o, valvul/o valve
vas/o vessel, duct, vas deferens
ven/o vein
ventricul/o ventricle (lower chamber of the heart)
-version to turn
vertebr/o spine, vertebrae (backbone)
vesic/o urinary bladder
vesicul/o seminal vesicle
vestibul/o vestibule of the inner ear
viscer/o internal organs
vitre/o vitreous body of the eye
vulv/o vulva (female external genitalia)
xanth/o yellow
xen/o stranger, foreigner
xer/o dryness, dry
xiph/o sword shaped
-y condition, process of
zo/o animal life
abdomen abdomin/o (use with -al, -centesis) celi/o (use with -ac) lapar/o (use with -scope, -scopy, -tomy)
abnormal dys-, par-, para-
above epi-, hyper-, supra-
acid oxy-
across trans-
action -praxia
after post-
again re-
against anti-, contra-
air aer/o, pneum/o, pneumon/o
all pan-
animal life zo/o
ankle tars/o
anxiety anxi/o
apart ana-
appetite -orexia
arm brachi/o
assemble -agon
away from ab-, apo-, ex-, exo-
back re-, retro-
bad cac/o, dys-, mal-
bear (to) -para, -parous, -phoria, phor/o
before ante-, pre-, pro-, pros-
beginning -arche
behind post-, poster/o, retro-
below, beneath hypo-, infra-, sub-
beside para-
bent ankyl/o, scoli/o
bend (to) flex/o
between inter-
beyond hyper-, meta-, ultra-
birth nat/l, -partum, toc/o, -tocia
black anthrac/o, melan/o
blood hem/o (use with -dialysis, -globin, -lysis, philia, -ptysis, -rrhage, -stasis, -stat) hemat/o (use with -crit, -emesis, -logist, -logy, oma, poiesis, -uria)
blue cyan/o
body corpor/o, somat/o, -some
bone oste/o
brain encephal.o, cerebr/o
break -clasis, -clast
breast mamm/o (use with -ary, -gram, -graphy, -plasty) mast/o (use with -algia, -dynia, -ectomy, -itis)
breathe spir/o
breathing -pnea
burn caus/o, cauter/o
calcium calc/o, calci/o
cancerous carcin/o
carbon dioxide capn/o, -capnia
carry duct/o, -ferent, -phoria
carrying -phoresis
cartilage chondr/o
cast, throw bol/o
cause eti/o
cecum (a pouch connected to the junction of the small and large intestines) cec/o
cell cyt/o, -cyte
cells (condition of) cytosis
cerebrum cerebr/o
change meta-
cheek bucc/o
chemical chem/o
chest pector/o, steth/o, thorac/o, -thorax
child ped/o
chin ment/o
cholesterol cholesterol/o
circle or cycle cycl/o
clavicle or collar bone clavicul/o
clot thromb/o
clumping agglutin/o
coal dust anthrac/o
coccyx coccyg/o
cold cry/o
colon col/o (use with -ectomy, -itis, -pexy, -tomy) colon/o (use with -ic, -pathy, -scope, scopy)
color chrom/o
complete dia-, tel/o
condtion -ation, -ema, -esis, -ia, -ism, -sis, -y
condtion, abnormal -iasis, -osis
connective tissue sarc/o
constant home/o
contraction -stalsis
contraction of muscles (sudden) -spasm
crooked ankyl/o, scoli/o
crush (to) -tripsy
curve lord/o, cis/o, sect/o, -section, tom/o
cutting (process of) -tomy
dance hore/o
defecation -chezia
deficient hypo-
destroy -lytic
destruction -lysis
development plas/o, -plasia, troph/o, -trophy
difficult dys-
digestion -pepsia
dilation -ectasia, -ectasis
discharge -rrhea
disease nos/o, path/o, -pathy
distant dist/o. tel/o
double dipl/o
down cata-, de-
drug chem/o, pharmac/o. pharmaceutic/o
duct vas/o
ear aur/o (use with -al, icle) auricul/o (use with -ar) ot/o (use with -algia, -ic, -itis, -logy, -mycosis, -rrhea, -sclerosis, -scope, -scopy)
ear (condition of) -otia
eardrum myring/o (use with -ectomy, -itis, -tomy) tympan/o (use with -ic, -metry, -plasty)
eat phag/o, -phage
eating -phagia
egg cell o/o, ov/o. ovul/o
elbow olecran/o
embryonic -blast
enlargement -megaly
enzyme -ase
equal -iso
excess ultra-
excessive hyper-
excision -ectomy
expansion -ectasia, -ectasis
extreme point, extremities acr/o
eye ocul/o (use with -ar, -facial, -motor) opthalm/o (use with -ia, -ic, -logist, -logy, -pathy, -plasty, -plegia, -scope, -scopy) opt/o (use with -ic, -metrist) optic/o (use with -al, -ian)
face faci/o
false pseudo-
far dist/o
fast tachy-
fat adip/o (use with -ose, -osis) lip/o (use with -ase, -cyte, - genesis, -oid, -oma) steat/o (use with -oma, -rrhea)
fear phob/o. -phobia
feeling esthesi/o, -phoria
female estr/o (use with -gen, -genic) gynec/o (use with -logist, -logy, -mastia)
femur femor/o
fever pyr/o, pyret/o, pyrex/o
fibula fibul/o (use with -ar) perone/o (use with -al)
finger/toe bones phalang/o
fixation -pexy
flesh sarc/o
flow rrhea
fluid collection -oma
flushed erythem/o
foot pod/o
foot bones metatars/o
form morph/o
formation plas/o, -plasia, -plasm, -poiesis, -genesis
forward ante-, pro-, pros-
four quadri-
front anter/o
full of -ose
fungus fung/i (use with -cide, -oid, -ous, -stasis)
gallbladder cholecyst/o
given (what is) -dote
gland aden/o
glomerulus glomerul/o
glucose gluc/o, glyc/o, glycos/o
glue gli/o, coll/a
good eu-
gray glauc/o
green chlor/o
groin inguin/o
grow -physis
half hemi-, semi-
hand chir/o
hard scirrh/o, kerat/o
hardening -sclerosis
head cephal/o
hearing acous/o, audi/o, -cusis, audit/o, -acusis
heart cardi/o
heat therm/o, cauter/o
heel bone calcane/o
hernia -cele, herni/o
hidden crypt/o
hip pelv/i
hold back isch/o
humpback kyph/o
ileum ile/o
ilium ili/o
immature -blast
in, into em-, en-, endo-, in-, ir-, intra-
in front of pre-
incomplete atel/o
increase in numbers -cytosis
infection seps/o
inferior to infra-
inflammation -itis
instrument of recording graph
instrument of visual inspection -scope
internal organs viscer/o
intestine (large) col/o
intestine (small) enter/o
irregular poikil/o
itching pruritis
jaw (lower) mandibul/o
jaw (upper) maxill/o
joint arthr/o, articul/o
kidney nephr/o (use with -algia, -ectomy, -ic, -itis, -lith, -megaly, -oma, -osis, -pathy, -ptosis, -sclerosis, -stomy, -tomy) ren/o (use with -al, -gram)
killing -cidal, -cide
knowledge gnos/o
labor partum, toc/o, -tocia
lack of strength -asthenia
lacrimal duct dacryocyst/o
large mega-, macro-
lens of eye phac/o, phak/o
less -de
life bi/o
lip cheil/o, labi/o
little -ole, ule
liver hepat/o
location top/o
loin lumb/o
lung pneum/o (use with -thorax, -coniosis, -coccus) pneumon/o (use with -ectomy, -ia, -ic, -itis, -lysis) pulmon/o (use with -ary)
lymph gland lymphaden/o
male andr/o
many poly-, multi
mass -oma
meal cib/o, -prandial
measure -meter, metr/o
meatus meat/o
menstruation men/o
midwife obstetr/o
milk galact/o
mind psych/o, ment/o
mouth or/o, stomat/o
muscle muscul/o, my/o
muscle (smooth) leiomy/o
muscle (skeletal) rhabdomy/o
muzzle phim/o
nail onych/o, ungu/o
narrowing -constriction, -stenosis
navel omphal/o
near para-, proxim/o
network reticul/o
network of nerves plex/o
night noct/i, nyct/o
nipple thel/o
no, not a-. an-
non nulli-
nourishment troph/o, -trophy
nucleus kary/o, nucle/o
numbness narc/o
old age presby/o, ger/o
one mono-, uni-
one's own aut/o, auto-
one who -er, -or
opening -tresia
opposite contra-
orange-yellow cirrh/o
order norm/o, tax/o
other than par-
out ec-, ex-, exo-, extra-
outer region cortic/o
ovary ovari/o, oophor/o
oxygen oxo, -oxia
pain -algia, -dynia, odyn/o
pain (sensitivity to) -algesia
palsy -plegia
paralysis -plegia
penis balan/o, phall/o
people dem/o
pertaining to -ac, -al, -an, -ar, -ary, -eal, -ical, -ose
physician iatr/o
pituitary gland hypophys/o, pituitar/o
place -stasis
plant phyt/o
pleural cavity -thorax
poison tox/o
pores (condition of) -porosis
pregnancy -cyesis
pressure -tension
process -ation, -ion, -ism
produced by or in -genic
protection immun/o
pulse sphygm/o
puncture to remove fluid -centesis
pupil cor/o, core/o
put in place -pexy
rapid oxy-
rays radi/o
relaxation -chalasia
removal -apheresis
repair -plasty
resembling -oid
rib cost/o
rosy erythr/o
saliva sial/o
sameness home/o
scaly ichthy/o
secrete -crine, crin/o
seizure lepsy
semen semin/i
sensation, nervous -esthesia
separation -lysis
severe acul/o
sheath thec/o
shield thry/o
shin bone tibi/o
side later/o
sieve ethm/o
skin cutane/o, derm/o, -derma
skull crani/o
sleep (deep) comat/o
slide (to) -lapse
slipping -lithesis
sodium natr/o
specialist -ist
speech phas/o
sperm sperm/o
spinal cord myel/o
spitting -ptysis
split -fida
starch amyl/o
stomach gastr/o
structure -um, -ium
substance -in, -ine
substance that forms -poietin
surrounding -peri
swallowing -phago
swayback (curve) lord/o
sweat diaphor/o, hidr/o
tail caud/o
tailbone coccyg/o
tear (to cut) -spadia
testis orchi/o, orch/o, orchid/o
thigh femur
thin lept/o
thirst dips/o
through dia-, per-, trans-
throw (to) bol/o
tie together -desis
tightening -stenosis
tissue hist/o
tongue gloss/o, lingu/o
tooth dent/i, odont/o
toward ad-
tumor -oma, onc/o
turn -tropia
two bi-
tympanic membrane myring/o, tympan/o
ulcer aphth/o
umbilicus (navel) omphal/o
unequal anis/o
unknown idi/o
up ana-
ureter ureter/o
urethra urethr/o
urea azot/o
urinary tract ur/o
uterus hyster/o, metr/o, metri/o
vagina colp/o,vagin/o
vein phleb/o, ven/o
ventricle ventricul/o
vessel angi/o, vas/o
vision -opia, -opsia, opt/o, optic/o
voice phon/o, -phonia
water aque/o, hydr/o
watery flow rheumat/o
wide mydr/o
widening -dilation, -ectasis, -eurysm
with con-
within en-, endo-. intra-
woman gynec/o
word -lexia
work erg/o
wrist bone carpal
yellow lute/o, jaund/o. xanth/o
Created by: wea.kimberly