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The Middle East Since World War II

Zionism Movement to create a Jewish Homeland in Palestine
OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) Oil cartel made up of a majority of Middle Eastern nations. Attempts to control price of oil, although influence has decreased in recent years.
Six-Day War War between Israel and its neighbors that resulted in the tripling of the size of Israel
Camp David Accords Agreement in which Egypt became the first Arab nation to recognize Israel's "right to exist"
Islamic Fundamentalism Movement to return to the "traditional" practices/interpretations of Islam and the Quran. A reaction to Westernization and materialism. Often leads to a decrease in the rights of women. Examples: Iranian Revolution in 1979 and the Taliban in Afghanistan.
Jerusalem Holy city for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Control of the city is a complicating issue for Middle East peace.
Iranian Revolution The overthrow of the pro-West Shah of Iran that led to an Islamic Fundamentalist government
Suez Canal Strategic waterway designed to shorten trade routes.
Middle East Region of the world in Southwestern Asia and Northern Africa. Oil resources, the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, Terrorism, conflict between tradition and modernization, and access to fresh water are some of the issues facing this region.
Saddam Hussein Former leader of Iraq who led a war against Iran in the 1980s (during which he targeted Kurds with poison gas), invaded Kuwait in 1990, and was overthrown by the US in 2003.
Kurds Ethnic minority in Iraq, Turkey, Syria and Iran. Want an independent Kurdish nation. Protests have been violently put down on multiple occasions in multiple countries.
Taliban Islamic Fundamentalist government of Afghanistan that severely restricted women's rights, and harbored al-Qaeda. Came to power in the chaos after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
Osama bin Laden Founder of al-Qaeda, the terrorist organization responsible for the September 11 attacks.
Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) Nationalist Organization that wants a nation for Palestinian Arabs.
Shah Reza Pahlavi Leader of Iran overthrown by the 1979 Iranian Revolution. Was known for his close ties to the West and efforts to westernize/modernize Iran.
Arab Spring Pro-democracy movement in the Middle East and Northern Africa that led to the downfall of several governments, but had limited results in spreading democracy.
ISIS Terrorist organization based in Iraq and Syria.
Anwar Sadat Egyptian Leader who agreed to Camp David Accords with Israel. Brought him into conflict with other Arab leaders and led to his assassination by extremists.
Created by: mrfordglobal