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Chapter 13 Mid Ages

Charlemange King of the Franks from 768 to 814; he united much of France, Germany, and northern Italy in one Frankish empire; crowned Emperor of the Roman people in 800
Papal States Territories in the Italian peninsula that were under sovereign direct rule of the pope.
counts People elected by Charlemagne to rule parts of the empire in his name
Navigation Planning the course across the sea
sagas Long Icelandic stories about great heroes and events
Leif Eriksson Norwegian explorer, he led a group of vikings to North America and settled on the eastern shore of modern day Canada
Knights a man who served his sovereign or lord as a mounted soldier in armor.
fief an estate of land, especially one held on condition of feudal service.
vassal a holder of land by feudal tenure on conditions of homage and allegiance.
feudal system a power structure where people held their land in return for promising loyalty, known as doing homage, and providing services such as working or fighting for their lord.
fealty a feudal tenant's or vassal's sworn loyalty to a lord.
manorial system social system by which the peasants of medieval Europe were rendered dependent on their land and on their lord
serfs an agricultural laborer bound under the feudal system to work on his lord's estate.
Alfred the Great King of Wessex from 871 to 899. Alfred successfully defended his kingdom against the Viking attempt at conquest, and by the time of his death had become the dominant ruler in England
William the Conqueror the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. A descendant of Rollo, he was Duke of Normandy from 1035 onward.
Domesday book a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror
Elanor of aquitaine a Queen consort of France and England. As a member of the Ramnulfids rulers in southwestern France, she was one of the most powerful and wealthiest women in western Europe during the High Middle Ages.
Magna Carta a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.
Parliament he highest legislature, consisting of the sovereign, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons.
Hugh capet he highest legislature, consisting of the sovereign, the House of Lords, and the House of Commons.
Otto the Great German king from 936 and emperor of the Holy Roman Empire from 962 until his death in 973. He was the oldest son of Henry I the Fowler and Matilda.
Reconquista the name given to a long series of wars and battles between the Christian Kingdoms and the Muslim Moors for control of the Iberian Peninsula. It lasted for a good portion of the Middle Ages from 718 to 1492.
Piety the quality of being religious or reverent.
Pontificate the quality of being religious or reverent.
Pope Gregory VII pope from 22 April 1073 to his death in 1085. One of the great reforming popes, he is perhaps best known for the part he played in the Investiture Controversy
Henry IV Henry IV, also known as Henry of Bolingbroke, was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413, and asserted the claim of his grandfather, Edward III, to the Kingdom of France.
Created by: bprimo