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Chapter Ten

VOCAB and QUESTIONS

QuestionAnswer
Absolute Bioavailability the bioavailability of a drug product compared to the same drug in the form of a rapidly administered IV
absorption the movement of a drug from the dosage formulation to the blood
active transport the movement of drugs from one area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration: cellular energy is required
agonists drugs that activate cell receptors to accelerate or slow normal cell function
antagonists drugs that bind with receptors but do not activate them
bioavailabilty the amount of the administered dose that reaches the general circulation and the rate at which it occurs
bioequivalency the comparison of bioavailability between two forms
complexation when two different molecules associate or attach to each other
disposition a term sometimes used to refer to all of ADME processes together
duration of action the time drug concentration is about minimum effective concentration MEC
elimination the process of metabolism and excretion
enterohepatic cycling the transfer of drugs and their metabolites from the liver to bile in the gall bladder, then into the intestine, and back into circulation
enzyme a complex protein that catalyzes chemical reactions
enzyme induction the increase of hepatic enzyme activity that results in the greater metabolism of drugs
enzyme inhibition the decrease of hepatic enzyme activity that results in reduced metabolism of drugs
first-pass metabolism the substantial degradation of an orally administered drug caused by enzyme metabolism in the liver before the drug reaches the systemic circulation
gastric emptying time the time a drug will stay in the stomach before entering the small intestine
glomerular filtration the blood philtering process of the nephron
hydrophilic capable of absorbing water or associating with water
hydrophobic water repelling: cannot associate with water
lipoidal fat like substance
Metabolite the substance resulting from a body's transformation of an administered drug
Minimum Effective Concentration (MEC) the blood concentration needed for a drug to produce a response
Minimum Toxic Concentration (MTC) the upper limit of the therapeutic window
nephron the functional unit of the kidneys
onset of action the time MEC is reached and the response occurs
passive diffusion the movement of drugs from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
pharmaceutical alternative drug products that contain the same active ingredient, but not necessarily in the same salt form, amount or dosage form.
pharmaceutical equivalent drug products that contain identical amounts of the same active ingredients and same dosage form
protein binding the attachment of a drug molecule to a plasma or tissue protein, effectively making the drug inactive, but also keeping it within the body
receptor the cellular material located at the site of action that interacts with the drug
relative bioavailability the bioavailability of a drug product compared to the same drug in any other dosage form than a rapidly administered IV solution
selective (action) the characteristic of a drug that makes its action specific to certain receptors and the tissues they affect
site of action the location where an administered drug produces an effect
therapeutic equivalent pharmaceutical equivalents that produce the same effects
therapeutic window a drug's blood concentration range between its minimum effective concentration and minimum toxic concentration
The place where a drug causes an effect to occur is called the .. site of action
when a drug produces an effect, it is acting at a _________ level. cellular
What can determine drug action? number of receptors occupied, number of receptors present, and sensitivity of receptors
what is the process of blood concentration from administration to the site of action? absorption, distribution, membrane permeability elimination, , ect.
Blood can be repeatedly sampled, making it.... the best way to determine drug concentration
If the blood concentration- time profile reflects the amount of drug at the site of action, the maximum therapeutic response would occur.... at the onset of action
what drug would not be typically monitored with peak and trough blood concentrations? promethazine (anti-histamine)
a drug would be eliminated from the system within...... five times the half life
unionized drugs are passively diffused thorugh membranes
to transfer a drug out of dosage form and into the blood, it has to absorb
Created by: awierman20