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Chp. 9 - Crusades

Term / Definition

bedouins small group of nomadic people.
Muhammad Prophet of Islam whom Muslims recognize as Allah's messenger to all humankind.
hegira Muhammad's journey from Mecca to Medina.
Islam a monotheistic religion whose prophet is Muhammad and whose holy book is Quar'an.
Muslims followers of Islam.
Qur'an the sacred text of islam.
Five Pillars of Islam behaviors and obligations that are common to all Muslims.
mosque a building fro Muslim prayer.
jihad "struggle for the faith" can be thought of as an individual or common struggle.
Abu Bakr 1st Muslim caliph as a close companion and successor.
caliph successor to the prophet,title given to the political and religous leader of Muslims.
caliphate area ruled by caliph.
Umayyad 1st ruling of dynasty over the Muslim caliphate.
Sunnis "people who follow the Sunna"the largest branch of Islam.
Shia a branch of Islam whose adherents believe that the caliphate must go to a descendant of Muhammad.
Sufis a branch of Islam emphasizing a personal, mystical connection with God.
Abbasid dynasty that overthrew Umayyad dynasty to the Muslim caliphate from 750 to 1258.
Harun al-Rashid 5th Abbasid dynasty, under his rule the Abbasid dynasty reached it's height,
minarets towers attached to the outside of mosque from where crier calls Muslims to worship.
calligraphy the art of fine handwriting,
Ibn Khaldun Muslim writer, he wrote the Muqaddimah which traced history of the Muslim world.
Ibn Rushd Spanish-Arab philosopher, also known as Averroes influenced by Aristotle, his best known writings explore the relationship between reason and faith.
Ibn Sina Persian philosopher and physician, also known as Avicenna noted as medical scholar, he contributed to many other fields of study.
Rumi Persian poet , he was a Sufi order whose members use music and dancing in their rituals.
Astrolabe an instrument for determining the positions and movement of heavenly bodies.
Omar Khayyam Persian poet, mathematician, astronomer and philosopher author of "The Rubaiyat" a collections of poems about a man who celebrates the simple pleasures of life.
Created by: kaileepetty