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A&P2 Chapter 24-25

The Digestive System, Metabolism and Energetics

The sequence steps by which large food molecules are broken down into their respective building blocks by catalytic enzymes is called? chemical digestion
The propulsive process that moves food from one organ to the next is called? peristalsis
The ____ sphincter, or valve, controls food movement from the stomach into the small intestines. pyloric
Large wrinkle-like folds in the stomach lining, present when the stomach is empty, that allow for expansion when the stomach is filling are called? rugae
Intrinsic factor, produced by cells in the stomach, is necessary for the absorption of vitamin ____ in the small intestine. B12
The three subdivisions of the small intestines are? duodenum, jejunum and ileum
The fingerlike projections of the small intestine increase the surface are and are known as ____. villi
Bile is formed by the _____. liver
The process by which food within the small intestine is mixed with digestive juices by backward and forward movement across the internal wall of the organ is called? segmentation
Deep folds of both the mucosa and submucosa in the small intestine that increase surface are known as? plicae circulares
The process of chewing is known as? mastication
What sphincter regulates the passage of food from the esophagus into the stomach? esophageal
The enzyme produced by the salivary glands used in the breakdown of starches is salivary ___. amylase
The active, voluntary process of placing food in one's mouth is? ingest
When digestion is not occurring in the small intestine, bile is stored in the? gallbladder
The process of eliminating indigestible residues from the GI tract is called? defecation/excretion
Two hormones that promote the release of bile and pancreatic juice into the small intestine are? secretin and cholecystokinin or CCK
The hormone responsible for promoting the release of pepsinogens, mucus, and hydrochloric acid in the stomach is called? gastrin
Hydrochloric acid is necessary in the stomach for the conversion of pepsinogen into its active protein-digesting form called? pepsin
What lymphatic tissue in the submucosa of the small intestine prevents bacteria from entering the blood? pyers patches
The small intestine extends from the ____. (valve to valve) pyloric sphincter to ileocecal valve
What organs release secretions into the duodenum of the small intestine? liver and pancreas
Enzymes and bile are carried by the pancreatic duct and bile duct into the? duodenum
List the functions of the small intestines. (1) mixes food with bile and pancreatic juices (2) final enzyme breakdown of food molecules (3) main site of nutrient absorption
Name the divisions of the large intestines. cecum, colon, rectum
List the functions of the large intestines. (1) reabsorb water and compact feces (2) absorb vitamins by bacteria (3) store fecal material prior to defecation
List the function of the liver. 1)bile production/excretion 2)excretion of bilirubin/cholesterol/hormones/drugs 3)metabolism of fats/proteins/carbs 4)enzyme activation 5)storage of glycogen/vitamins/minerals 6)synthesis of plasma proteins 7)blood detoxification/purification
What is used to increase the surface area of the small intestines? microvilli, villi, circular folds (plicae circulares)
When feces are forced in the rectum by mass movement and the wall of the rectum becomes stretched, the ___ reflex is initiated. defecation reflex
____ refers to all chemical reactions necessary to maintain life. metabolism
Sugars and starches are types of organic compounds known as ____. carbohydrates
The major fuel for making ATP in most cells of the body is a type of carbohydrate known as? glucose
The three main metabolic pathways involved in cellular respiration are? glycolysis, Krebs cycle and electron transport chain
The process of making glucose from non-carbohydrate sources, such as fats and proteins, is known as? gluconeogenesis
The lipoprotein that transports cholesterol and other lipids to body cells is called? low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
Proteins are digested to their building blocks which are called? amino acids
In which stage of carbohydrate metabolism is adenosine triphosphate (ATP) produced in greatest quantity during? the electron transport chain
The direct transfer of heat energy from one object to another through physical contact is called? conduction
Heat loss to the cooler air that moves across the surface of your body is called? convection
Factors that influence an individual's BMR (basal metabolic rate)are? body weight, sex, genetics, and age ***NOT body height, physical exertion***
List the fat-soluble vitamins. vitamin A, D, E and K
List the water soluble vitamins. vitamin B and C
The vitamin that is a coenzyme in amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism is? folic acid (folate), B6
The vitamin that is required for proper bone growth and for calcium absorption and retention is vitamin? vitamin D
What is meant by an essential nutrient? a nutrient required for normal body functioning that can not be synthesized by the body
Vitamin K is needed for? blood clotting, but also essential to building strong bones, preventing heart disease and crucial to other bodily proceses
Deficiency of this vitamin causes scurvy. vitamin C
To increase the absorptive efficiency of the small intestine, the surface area of the mucosa is increased by the presence of folds in the wall called ___, and projections of the cells membrane called ____. villi, microvilli
What is the order of the small intestine? (from the stomach) duodenum, jejunum and ileum
What enzymes degrades lipids? pancreatic lipases
How is glucose stored in muscle and liver cells? stored in the form of glycogen. Muscle glycogen is converted into glucose by muscle cells and liver glycogen converts to glucose for use throughout the body
*Short Answer* Describe how these chemical reactions assist with blood sugar homeostasis: gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis and glycogenesis. Gluconeogenesis-to make new glucose from non-carb substrates Glycogenolysis- to break down glycogen Glycogenesis- to make glycogen
*Short Answer* List and describe four functions of the digestive system. (1)ingestion- take in food through mouth (2)Digestion- breakdown food through mechanical & chemical digestion (3) Absorption- absorb nutrients through walls of intestine (4) Excretion- eliminate waste through fecal matter
Each of the following organs is a component of the digestive track EXCEPT the? bladder
Which of the following is an accessory organ of digestion? pancreas
Digestion refers to the? mechanical and chemical breakdown of food
Which of the following is NOT a function of the digestive system? filtration
Waves of muscular contractions that propel the contents of the digestive tract are called? peristalsis
The activities of the digestive system are regulation by? hormones, the contents of the digestive tract, parasympathetic and sympathetic neurons
The ___ are double sheets of peritoneal membrane that suspend the visceral organs and carry nerves, lymphatics and blood vessels. mesenteries
A stratified squamous epithelial lining can be found in all of the following EXCEPT in the? stomach
What organ is primarily responsible for water absorption? large intestine
The greater omentum is? a fatty sheet that hangs like an apron over the abdominal viscera
A blockage of the ducts from the parotid glands would? interfere with carbohydrate digestions in the mouth
The prominent ridges in the lining of the empty stomach are called? rugae
The enzyme pepsin digests? proteins
The hormone that stimulates secretion and contraction by the stomach os? gastrin
An intestinal hormone that stimulates the gallbladder to release bile is? cholecystokinin (CCK)
The fusion of the common hepatic duct and cystic duct forms the? common bile duct
Blockage of the common hepatic duct would interfere with digestion of? fats
Identify the INCORRECT pairing. liver; produces intrinsic factor
The sum of all the biochemical processes going on within the human body at any given time is called? metabolism
Cells synthesize new organic components for which of the following reasons? structural maintenance, growth and repair, and produces secretions
Reactions within ___ provide most of the energy needed by the typical cell. the mitochondria
What percent of energy released from catabolism is lost as heat? 60
The study of the flow of energy and its transformation is called? energetics
The citric acid cycle. begins with the formation of a molecule of citric acid
In the electron transport chain, NADH and FADH2 donate hydrogen atoms, reduced molecules transfer energy to make ATP formation and oxidative phosphorylation leads to ATP formation
In glycolysis, each molecule of glucose that is catabolized gives a net yield of how many molecules of ATP? 2
Created by: jnipper