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World War 1

Triple Alliance Bismarck created this group (German, Austro-Hungarian, and Russian empires) so they would not ally with broken France. Ended in 1890 because William II took over Germany
Anglo-French Entente British and French alliance - B would help F in defensive war.
Anglo-Russian Agreement British and Russian alliance - B would help R in defensive war
Assassination of Austrian heir Archduke Ferdinand at Sarajevo. June, 1914. Decisive cause of WW1
Militarism (German rise of navy and army), secret alliances (ententes, agreements), imperialism, nationalism (Southeastern Europeans' land controlled by Turks, German navy, French downfall) 4 proximate main causes of WW1
Austria, Germany (I), Turkey, Bulgaria (1915) Central Powers
Serbia, Russia, France, Britain (I), Italy (1915), Romania (1916), US, Greece (1917) Allies
Machine guns, Poison gas, Tanks (bad for trenches), Flamethrower, Barbed wire, Air+Water Ships New weapons
Western front English channel to swiss border (400 mi). Mostly trench warfare. France + GB + US vs Germany. Germany close to capturing Paris.
Christmas Armstice Day where both sides stopped fighting to celebrate and eat together.
Eastern front Baltic Sea to Black Sea. Mostly cavalry and infantry warfare. Germany vs Russia.
Alpine front Italy and Austria Hungary.
April 1917. US originally 'neutral,' but sympathetic to Allies. After German unrestricted warfare and 4 supply ships lost in 2 weeks. Zimmerman Telegram intercepted (British) - public outcry in southwest. Cause of American entry
Russia had revolutions 1917, and lost in 1916 Somme River offensive Cause of Russian exit
14 Points January 1917 - Speech by Wilson proposing peaceful world view. Not taken seriously by European powers.
No secret ally, free seas, no econ. barriers, less arms, no imperialism, territories in Russia, Belgian sovereignty, restore French territory, redraw Italy and Balkans, divide Austria, limit Turkey (Armenian genocide), independent Poland, League o N. All 14 points
Zimmerman Telegram. Intercepted January, released March, April declaration of war Message from German foreign minister and German minister in Mexico - offered Mexico American land if they went to war with US.
Fall 1918 - Austrian wanted peace, Bulgaria + Turkey left. Nov 11 1918 - Germany wanted peace. Cause of Central Power fall
Propaganda Designed to influence opinions, emotions, behavior. Goals were to recruit, conserve goods, war bonds, war support. Used fear, name calling, generality, bandwagon, plain folk, testimonial
950,000 from fight, 6,000,000 from disease. (10% of soldiers) War casualties
PDA, extramarital sex, relaxed clothing, sexual conduct, imbalance of genders all increased. Effects of war on social life
Defeated countries divided and made to trusteeships to help new colonies become independent. France given supervision over Saar that rejoined Germany 1935. League of Nations. Germany expected it to have 14 points, punished instead. Treaty of Versailles policies
Wilson, Orlando, Lloyd, Clemenceau. US rejected these, so made separate treaties with defeated states. Big 4 at Treaty of Versailles
Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Alsace-Lorraine, Poland. Austria-Successor states
Jordan, Palestine, Iraq, Syria, Arabia, Lebanon - French and British protectorates Ottoman Empire states
League of Nations Wilson's idea that was part of Treaty of Versailles, but US never joined - Congress never voted on it. Difficult to draw borders of successor states
Defeated were "too well left off." Germany wgot $33B damages. Defeated leaders left / died / exiled. US no European involvement for 20 years. Unfair treatment to defeated and Russia. - Overall - armistice, not peace Effects of Treaty and League
Created by: uriel_magana