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Chavez WH 19 Vocab

Ch 19&20

Bartolomeu Dias Portuguese explorer who rounded the tip of Africa
Prince Henry Portuguese supporter of exploration
Vasco da Gama Explorer who gave Portugal a direct sea route to India
Treaty of Tordesillas Treaty between Spain and Portugal dividing newly discovered lands between them
Dutch East India Company Dutch company that established and directed trade throughout Asia
Christopher Columbus Italian explorer who landed in the Americas
Colony Land controlled by another nation
Hernando Cortes Conquistador who defeated the Aztec
Conquistador Spanish explorers in the Americas
Francisco Pizarro Conquistador who defeated the Inca
Atahualpa Last incan emperor
Mestizo Person with mixed Spanish and Native American blood
encomienda System of mining and farming using natives as a slave labor
New France Area of the Americas explored and claimed by France
Jamestown First permanent settlement in America
Pilgrims Group of English people who founded a colony in Plymouth
New Netherland Dutch colony begun in modern New York City
Puritans People who did not agree with practices of the Church of England
French and Indian War War between Britain and France over land in North America
Metacom Native American leader who led an attack on the villages of Massachusetts; also called King Philip
Atlantic slave trade Buying and selling of Africans for work in the Americas
Triangular trade Europeans trade between the Americas, Africa, and Europe involving slaves and other goods
Middle passage Voyage that brought captured Africans to the West Indies and the Americas
Columbian Exchange Global transfer of foods, plants, and animals during the colonization of the Americas
Capitalism Economic system based on private ownership and the investment of wealth for a common purpose
Joint-stock company Company in which people pooled their wealth for a common purpose
Mercantilism Economic policy of increasing wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and selling more goods than are bought
Favorable balance of trade Condition resulting from selling more goods than are bought
Aztec Empire Great empire in the Valley of Mexico that had strong religious beliefs and a powerful army
Descendants People who are offspring or ancestors of one family group
Erupted Broke out
Imported Brought into one country from another
Inca Empire Largest empire ever in the Americas, located in the Andes
Plantations Large farms usually devoted to a single crop
Possession Land owned by another country
Private ownership Ownership by individuals instead of by groups or governments
rebellions Uprisings against the current government