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Bio 202 Immunity

The Immune System

First Line of Defense (1 Defense 1) Do not react to nor target specific antigens, just antigens in general.
1 Defense 2 Keratin provides a physical barrier to bacteria, weak acidity of skin (ph 3-5) inhibits some bacterial growth and sebum has chemicals toxic to bacteria, vaginal secretions are also acidic
1 Defense 3 Stomach secretes HCl and protein digesting enzymes
1 Defense 4 Saliva and lacrimal fluid (tears) contain lysozyme, a chemical that destroys certain bacteria
1 Defense 5 Mucus traps organisms and cilia sweep them away
1 Defense 6 Genetic lack of receptors or inadequate supply of nutrients
Second Line of Defense (2 Defense 1) Phagocytes (monocytes become macrophages)
2 Defense 2 Neutrophils - most abundant types of WBC, eosinophils and mast cells
2 Defense 3 Phagocytes must adhere to invader, but complement and antibodies allow opsonization to make eating easier
2 Defense 4 NK (natural killer) cells police blood and lymph; lyse and kill cancer cells and virus infected cells. Release perforins
Inflammatory Response triggered when body tissue injury occurs
Purpose (Inflammatory Response) Prevents spread of infection/microbes Disposes of debris and pathogens Repair process is enhanced
Signs (Inflammatory Response) Redness, swelling, heat, pain (sometimes impairment of function)
Chemicals Released (Inflammatory Response) Histamine, Kinins, Complement,
Histamine Vasodilation and increased permeability of capillaries
Kinins Similar to histamine, chemotaxis, pain
Complement Lyses microbes, enhances phagocytosis, intensifies inflammatory and immune response
Hyperemia (Inflammatory Response) Increased blood flow
Hyperemia 2 Congestion of tissues with blood causes heat and redness exudates causes swelling and pain
Edema (Inflammatory Response) Helps dilute harmful substances that may be present, brings oxygen and nutrients in for repair and allows clotting proteins to isolate injured area
Leukocytosis Chemicals from injured cells promote release of neutrophils from bone marrow (characteristic sign of inflammation)
Margination Blood flow slows in capillaries, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) cause neutrophils to cling to area of inflammation
Diapedisis Neutrophils move out of blood stream and into tissues by squeezing through capillary walls
Chemotaxis Neutrophils respond to chemical signals that act as homing devices or beacons, directing cells to site of injury. Monocytes come later and mature into macrophages to clean up area
Pus a mixture of dead or dying neutrophils, broken down tissue cells and living and dead pathogens
Complement 20 plasma proteins that, when activated, amplify all aspects of the inflammatory response as well as killing bacteria by attacking their cell membranes and causing lysis, or contributing to opsonization for phagocytosis
Fever Pyrogens (fever causing chemicals) are released by leukocytes. Heat inactivates bacterial enzymes, keeps iron and zinc needed for cellular function away from bacteria, and speeds up repair of body cells
Third Line of Defense (3 Defense 1) It is an antigen specific ( recognizes and is directed against particular antigens)
3 Defense 2 It is systemic (not restricted of the initial infection site)
3 Defense 3 It has a memory (a stronger and quicker second attack is mounted on previously is mounted on previously encountered pathogens
Humoral or antibody-mediated immunity (HAMI 1) B lymphocytes, which mature in the bone marrow and proliferate in the lymph nodes and spleen, are activated when antigens bind to their surface receptors (BCR's).
HAMI 2 The B cell with the receptor for a specific antigen will then grow and rapidly divide, producing a family of cells with the exact same antigen-specific surface receptors called a CLONE
HAMI 3 Most cells of the clone become plasma cells, which secrete antibodies with the same specificity as the BCR on the parent cell
HAMI 4 Clone cells that do not differentiate into plasma cells become long-lived memory cells that are involved in the secondary immune response
HAMI 5 Antibodies are Y shaped molecules made of 4 polypeptide chains; two heavy and two light, bound by disulfide bonds.
HAMI 6 Each heavy and light consist of a variable region (the arms or Fab) and a constant region (the bottom or Fc) The Fab region of an antibody bind to a specific antigen
Antibody-Antigen Complexes are Formed that causes Neutralization or masking of exotoxins and viruses Agglutination of particulate or cellular material Precipitation of soluble antigen Fixing and activation of complement Opsonization
Antibodies 5 Classifications Ig MADGE
IgG Which is the most abundant circulating Ab, can cross the placenta, activates complement, protects against bacteria, viruses and toxins
IgM Binds to B cells as a receptor, forms a five antibody molecule that is first released by plasma cells during an infection. Causes agglutination reactions in mismatched blood types, and activates complement
IgA Found in body secretions (sweat, saliva, tears) as a two antibody molecule and helps prevent attachment of pathogens to mucous membranes and epidermis
IgE (Bad, anaphylaxis) Secreted by ski, mucosa, and tonsils. Constant (Fc) region binds to mast cells and basophils and when bound to antigen on the variable (Fab) region, it causes the cells to release histamine and other inflammatory chemicals. Levels rise during allergies
IgD Bind with IgM to B cells as a receptor