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Med Term CH5

Med Term CH5 Cardiovascular System

angi/o blood or lymph vessel
aort/o aorta
arteri/o artery
ather/o plaque, fatty substance
brady- slow
cardi/o heart
-crasia a mixture or bending
-emia blood, blood condition
erythr/o red
hem/o, hemat/o blood, relating to the blood
leuk/o white
phleb/o vein
tachy- fast, rapid
thromb/o clot
ven/o vein
heart (forms, functions) card/o, cardi/o; Receives blood from the veins & pumps blood into the arteries
blood vessels (forms, functions) angi/o, vas/o; Transport blood to & from all areas of the body
arteries (forms, functions) transport blood away from the heart to all parts of the body
capillaries (forms, functions) capill/o; Permit the exchange of nutrients & waste products btw the blood & the cells.
veins (forms, functions) phleb/o, ven/o; Return the blood from all body parts to the heart.
blood (forms, functions) hem/o, hemat/o; Brings oxygen & nutrients to the cells & carries away waste.
cardiovascular consists of heart, blood vessels, blood & means pertaining to the heart
what does cardiovascular system do? efficiently pumps blood to all body tissues.
blood in cardiovascular system fluid tissue transporting oxygen & nutrients to body tissues, returns some waste products to kidneys, cells important w/ immune
heart hollow, muscular organ in thoracic cavity btw lungs. Size of fist, pumps blood throughout body
vascul blood vessels
apex lower tip of the heart
pericardium aka pericardial sac, double-walled membranous sac that encloses the heart.
membranous pertaining to membrane
membrane thin layer of pliable tissues that covers or encloses body part
parietal pericardium fibrous sac that surrounds & protects heart
pericardial fluid found btw 2 layers, where it acts as a lubricant to prevent friction as the heart beats
visceral pericardium inner layer of pericardium that also forms outer layer of heart. When outer layer of heart: epicardium.
epicardium outer layer of the heart.
3 layers of walls of heart epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
epicardium external layer of heart & inner layer of pericardium
myocardium middle & thickest of heart's 3 layers. aka myocardial muscle, specialized muscle capable of constant contraction & relaxation
endocardium consists of epithelial tissue, inner lining of the heart.
blood supply to myocardium beats constantly & must have continuous supply of oxygen & nutrients plus prompt waste removal to survive. Dies if disrupted
coronary arteries supply oxygen-rich blood to myocardium.
veins of the myocardium remove waste products from myocardium
atria 2 upper chambers (receiving all blood) of heart divided by interatrial septum.
interatrial septum divides the 2 upper chambers of heart
ventricles 2 lower chambers of heart divided by interventricular septum, walls thicker than atria b/c pumps blood throughout body, also normal hollow chamber of brain.
interventricular septum divides the 2 lower chambers of heart
valves of the heart tricuspid, pulmonary semilunar, mitral, aortic semilunar
tricuspid valve controls opening btw RT atrium & RT ventricle. Tricuspid = having 3 points, shape of this valve.
pulmonary semilunar valve located btw RT ventrical & pulmonary artery, shaped like a half-moon.
pulmonary pertaining to the lungs
semilunar half moon
mitral valve located btw LT atrium & LT ventricle, aka bicuspid valve.
mitral shaped like a bishop's mitre (hat)
bicuspid valve having 2 cusps (points)
aortic semilunar valve located btw LT ventricle & has semilunar shape (half moon)
oxygenated oxygen rich, or containing an adequate supply of oxygen
deoxygenated means oxygen poor, or not yet containing an adequate supply of oxygen.
right atrium RA, receives oxygen-poor blood from all tissues, except lungs, through superior & inferior venae cavae. Out of RA through tricuspid valve into RT ventricle
right ventricle RV, pumps oxygen poor blood through pulmonary semilunar valve & into pulmonary artery, which carries to lungs
left atrium LA, receives oxygen rich blood from lungs through 4 pulmonary veins. Blood flows out of LA through mitral valve & into LT ventricle
left ventricle LV, receives oxygen-rich blood from the LT atrium. Blood flows out of LV through aortic semilunar valve & into aorta, which carries to all parts of body minus lungs
oxygen-poor blood returned by venae cavae to RT atrium, & cycle starts
pulmonary circulation flow of blood only btw heart & lungs
pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood out of RT ventricle & into lungs. Only place in body where deoxygenated blood carried by arteries instead of veins.
Carbon dioxide from body is exchanged for oxygen from inhaled air here... lungs
pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from lungs into LT atrium of heart. Only place in body where veins carry oxygenated blood.
systemic circulation includes flow of blood to all parts of body except lungs
systemic circulation path oxygenated blood flows from LT vent & into arterial circ, veins carry deoxygenated blood into RT atrium, then blood flows into pulmonary circulation b4 being pumped out of heart to arteries again
heartbeat ability to pump blood effectively throughout body. Contraction & relaxation (beat) must occur in exact sequence
electrical impulses rate & regularity of heartbeat determined by these from nerves that stimulate myocardium of chambers of the heart
conduction system aka electrical impulses controlled by the SA node (sinoatrial), AV node (atrioventricular), & bundle of HIS
atrioventricular node impulses from SA node travel here, aka AV node. Located on floor of RT atrium near interatrial septum
HISS bundle of His - group of fibers located w/in interventricular septum. Carry electrical impulse 4 sequence of heart contraction
Purkinje fibers specialized conductive fibers located w/in walls of the ventricles. Relay electrical impulses to cells of ventricles & stimulation causes ventricles to contract.
electrocardiogram EKG/ECG, activities of electrical conduction system of heart are visualized as wave movements on this monitor
sinus rhythm normal beating of the heart
P wave due to stimulation (contraction) of the atria
QRS complex shows the stimulation (contraction) of the ventricles. Atria relax as ventricles contract.
T wave recovery (relaxation) of the ventricles.
3 types of blood vessels arteries, capillaries, veins: form the arterial & veinous circulatory systems.
arteries large blood vessels that carry blood away from heart to all regions of body. 3 layers, muscular, elastic. Disruption = stroke
endarterial within an artery or pertaining to the inner portion of an artery
arterial blood bright red in color b/c it is oxygen rich. Pumping action of heart causes blood to spurt out when an artery is cut.
aorta largest blood vessel in body. Begins from LT ventricle of heart & forms main trunk of arterial system
carotid arteries major arteries that carry blood upward to the head
common carotid artery located on each side of the neck
internal carotid artery brings oxygen-rich blood to brain
external carotid artery brings blood to face
arterioles smaller, thinner branches of arteries that deliver blood to capillaries.
capillaries only 1 epithelial cell in thickness, smallest blood vessels in body, form networks of expanded vascular beds that deliver oxygen/ nutrients to cells of tissues.
exchange of oxygen, nutrients, & waste materials occur w/in surrounding cells here capillaries
slow flow of blood to allow plasma to flow into tissues capillaries
veins form low-pressure collecting system to return oxygen-poor blood to heart, thinner & less elastic than arteries.
venules smallest veins that join to form larger veins
venous relating to, or contained, in the veins
vein valves enable blood to flow only toward the heart & to prevent it from flowing away from heart
superficial valves located near body's surface
deep veins located w/in tissues & away from body surface
venae cavae 2 largest veins in the body, return blood to heart
superior venae cavae transports blood from upper portion of body to heart
inferior venae cavae transports blood from lower portion of body to heart
pulse rhythmic pressure against walls of an artery caused by contraction of heart.
blood pressure measurement of amount of systolic and diastolic pressure exerted against walls of arteries.
systolic pressure occurs when ventricles contract, is highest pressure against walls of artery
systole contraction of the heart
systolic pertaining to this contraction phase
diastolic pressure occurs when ventricles are relaxed, lowest pressure against walls of artery.
diastole relaxation of the heart
diastolic pertaining to the diastole relaxation phase
blood fluid tissue in body, 55% plasma, 45% formed elements.
plasma straw-colored fluid that contains nutrients, hormones, & waste products. 91% water, 9% proteins
serum plasma fluid after the blood cells & clotting proteins have been removed
fibrinogen and prothrombin clotting proteins found in plasma, control bleeding
formed elements of the blood erythrocytes, leukocytes, thrombocytes
erythrocytes aka RBC's, mature red blood cells produced by red bone marrow. Transport oxygen to the tissues
hemoglobin oxygen-carrying blood protein pigment of the erythrocytes
-globin protein
leukocytes aka WBC's, involved in defending body against infective organisms & foreign substances. Neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes
neutrophils formed in red bone marrow, most common WBC. Through phagocytosis play major role in immune system's defense against pathogens like bacteria, viruses, fungi
phagocytosis process of destroying pathogens by surrounding & swallowing them.
basophils formed in red bone marrow, least common WBC, responsible for causing symptoms of allergies
eosinophils formed in red bone marrow then migrate to tissues throughout body, destroy parasitic organisms & major role in allergic reactions
lymphocytes formed in red bone marrow, in lymph nodes, & in spleen. Identify foreign substances & germs & produce antibodies to target them
monocytes formed in red bone marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen. Through phagocytosis provide immunological defenses against infections
thrombocytes aka platelets, smallest formed elements of blood, important role in clotting: become sticky & clump together
blood types classified according to presence or absence of certain antigens. Major types A, AB, B, O.
antigen any substance that the body regards as being foreign
A, AB, & B blood types based on presence of the A &/or B antigens on red blood cells
O blood types A & B antigens are absent
Rh factor defines presence or absence of Rh antigen on red blood cells. Name b/c 1st found in rhesus monkeys. 85% of Americans Rh+, others Rh-
Importance of Rh factor cross-matching for blood transfusions & difficulties when Rh+ infant born to Rh - mother
cardiologist physician who specializes in diagnosing & treating abnormalities, diseases, & disorders of heart
hematologist physician who specializes in diagnosing & treating abnormalities, diseases, & disorders of blood & blood-forming tissues
vascular surgeon physician who specializes in the diagnosis, medical mgmt, & surgical treatment of disorders of the blood vessels.
Leading cause of death in US heart disease
congenital heart defects structural abnormalities caused by failure of heart to develop normally b4 birth. Some apparent @ birth, others later
congenital present at birth
coronary artery disease CAD, aka coronary heart disease CHD & ischemic heart disease, atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries reducing blood supply to heart muscle. insufficient oxygen = angina/ heart attack
Most common type of heart disease coronary heart disease
end-stage coronary artery disease characterized by unrelenting angina pain & severely limited lifestyle
atherosclerosis hardening & narrowing of the arteries caused by buildup of cholesterol plaque on the interior walls of the arteries
plaque (atherosclerosis) found w/in the lumen of an artery, is a fatty deposit similar to the buildup of rust inside a pipe.
lumen opening w/in vessels through which blood flows.
atheroma characteristic of atherosclerosis which is a deposit of plaque on or w/in the arterial wall.
ischemia condition in which there is an insufficient supply of oxygen in the tissues due to restricted blood flow to a part of the body
cardiac ischemia lack of blood flow & oxygen to the heart muscle
isch to hold back
angina aka angina pectoris, condition in which severe episodes of chest pain occur due to inadequate blood flow to the myocardium. Due to ischemia of the heart muscle.
stable angina occurs during exertion (exercise) & resolves w/ rest
unstable angina may occur either during exertion or rest & is precursor to a myocardial infarction.
myocardial infarction aka heart attack. Occlusion of one or more coronary arteries caused by plaque build-up
occlusion total blockage
infarction sudden insufficiency of blood
infarct localized area of dead tissue caused by lack of blood
necrosis tissue death
damage to myocardium impairs heart's ability to pump blood throughout body
cerebral arteries location head
carotid arteries location both sides of neck
aorta location top of heart
coronary arteries location heart
renal arteries location kidneys
iliac arteries location above/ medial to iliac crest
femoral artery location medial to femurs in top half of legs
tibial artery location along tibia in lower half of leg
most frequent symptom of myocardial infarction pain or pressure in middle of chest that may spread to back, jaw, or left arm. Most have mild or no symptoms at all.
myocardial infarction symptoms for women atypical symptoms including weakness and fatigue
heart failure aka congestive heart failure (CHF), occurs most commonly in elderly, often after heart is weakened or damaged by other issues
what happens during heart failure in this chronic condition, heart is unable to pump out all of the blood it receives. Decreased pumping causes congestion.
congestion fluid buildup
left-sided heart failure aka pulmonary edema, accumulation of fluid in lungs. Unable to efficiently pump oxygen-rich blood from lungs to rest of body
left side of heart main pumping chamber that pumps oxygen-rich blood from lungs to rest of body.
right-sided heart failure often result of left-sided heart failure, causes fluid buildup throughout rest of body. Heart unable to pump efficiently
Signs of right-sided heart failure Due to pressure of gravity, this edema, or swelling, is 1st noticeable in feet & legs.
cardiomegaly abnormal enlargement of the heart frequently assoc. w/ heart failure as heart enlarges in effort to compensate for decreased pumping ability.
Carditis inflammation of the heart
endocarditis inflammation of the inner lining of the heart
bacterial endocarditis inflammation of lining or valves of heart caused by presence of bacteria in bloodstream.
Way that bacterial can get into bloodstream bleeding during dental surgery b/c allows bacteria from mouth to enter bloodstream
pericarditis inflammation of pericardium. Causes accumulation of fluid w/in pericardial sac, restricts movement of heart, reduces pumping
myocarditis inflammation of myocardium that develops as a rarely seen complication of a viral infection.
cardiomyopathy term to describe all diseases of the heart muscle.
dilated cardiomyopathy disease of the heart muscle that causes heart to become enlarged & to pump less strongly.
dilation expansion of a hollow structure
heart murmur abnormal blowing or clicking sound heard when listening to heart or neighboring blood vessel. Defective heart valves
valvulitis inflammation of a heart valve
valvul valve
valvular prolapse abnormal protrusion of a heart valve that results in inability of valve to close completely.
prolapse the falling or dropping down of an organ or internal part
valvular stenosis condition with narrowing, stiffening, thickening, or blockage of 1 or more valves of heart.
stenosis abnormal narrowing of an opening
arrhythmia loss of the normal rhythm of the heartbeat. Minor, temporary episode, or fatal. Severity on how pumping compromised.
what causes most arrhythmias an abnormality in the electrical conduction system of the heart.
asystole aka flat line, complete lack of heart contractions, w/ no blood pumping - no blood flow & can certify death.
systole contraction
cardiac arrest event in which heart abruptly stops beating or develops arrhythmia that prevents it from pumping blood effectively.
sudden cardiac death results when treatment of cardiac arrest is not provided w/in a few minutes
heart block congenital or acquired arrhythmia caused by electrical signal moving through heart being partially/ completely blocked from reaching ventricles
bradycardia abnormally slow resting heart rate, less than 60 bpm. Electricity blocked from top to bottom of heart
tachycardia abnormally rapid resting heart rate, greater than 100 bpm.
supraventricular tachycardia aka paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, episode that begins & ends abruptly w/ very rapid & irregular heartbeats @ or above AV node
ventricular tachycardia aka V-tach, very rapid heartbeat that begins w/in ventricles. Potentially fatal b/c too rapid to pump efficiently.
fibrillation potentially life-threatening fast & irregular heartbeat, compared to fast but regular rhythm of tachycardia.
atrial fibrillation aka A-fib, most common type of tachycardia. Occurs when normal rhythmic contractions of atria replaced w/ rapid uncontrolled twitching of muscular heart wall
ventricular fibrillation aka v-fib. Rapid, irregular, useless contractions of ventricles. Heart muscle quivers ineffectively. Cause of many cardiac arrst
palpitation pounding/ racing hearbeat w/ or w/o irregularity in rhythm. Can occur w/ panic attack
vasculitis inflammation of a blood vessel.
vascul blood vessels
polyarteritis form of vasculitis involving several md & sm arteries @ same time. Rare but serious bv disease-immune cells attack arterier
temporal arteritis aka giant cell arteritis, form of vasculitis that can cause headaches, visual impairment, jaw pain.
Termporal arteritis can cause this type of blindness unilateral or bilateral
angiostenosis abnormal narrowing of a blood vessel
hemagioma benign tumor made up of newly formed blood vessels
hem blood
angi blood or lymph vessel
hypoperfusion deficiency of blood passing through an organ or body part.
perfusion flow of blood through the vessels of an organ
anurysm localized weak spot of balloon-like enlargement of the wall of an artery. Rupture can be fatal b/c of rapid loss of blood.
arteriosclerosis aka hardening of arteries, any group of diseases characterized by thickening & loss of elasticity of arterial walls
arteriostenosis abnormal narrowing of an artery or arteries
chronic venous insufficiency aka venous insufficiency, condition which venous circulation inadequate due to partial vein blockage or leakage of venous valves
Chronic venous insufficiency affects feet, ankles, and the leakage of venous blood into tissues causes discoloration of skin
phlebitis aka thrombophlebitis, inflammation of vein, walls of vein often infiltrated & a clot (thrombus) formed. Usually superficial vein
varicose veins abnormally swollen veins that usually occur in superficial veins of legs. Occurs when veins do not function properly, blood pools
thrombosis abnormal condition of having a thrombus. Blood clot attached to interior wall of an artery or vein
thrombotic occlusion blocking of an artery by a thrombus.
thrombotic caused by a thrombus
occlusion blockage
coronary thrombosis damage to heart muscle caused by thrombus blocking a coronary artery
coron crown
deep vein thrombosis aka DVT & deep venous thrombosis, condition of having a thrombus attached to interior wall of deep vein.
embolism sudden blockage of a blood vessel by an embolus, often named for causative factor or location
embolus foreign object, such as a blood clot, a quantity of air or gas, or a bit of tissue or tumor that is circulating in blood.
embol something inserted
peripheral vascular diseases disorders of blood vessels that are located outside of the heart & brain. Narrowing of vessels that carry blood to legs, arms, stomach, or kidneys
peripheral arterial disease aka peripheral arterial occlusive disease, ex of a peripheral vascular disease caused by atherosclerosis.
Peripheral vascular disease affects more than 20% of all patients over 70. Impaired circulation to extremities & organs can cause changes in skin temp & color
Method for determining severity of PAD compare blood pressure @ ankle w/ bp in arm using ankle-brachial index
Peripheral arterial disease is also involved w/... intermittent claudication
Raynaud's disease peripheral arterial occlusive disease which intermittent attacks are triggered by cold or stress.
Raynaud's disease cause of symptoms due to constricted circulation, include pallor (paleness), cyanosis (blue color), & redness of fingers & toes
blood dyscrasia any pathologic condition of the cellular elements of the blood
crasia mixture or blending
hemochromatosis aka iron overload disease, genetic disorder in which intestines absorb too much iron. Excess accumulates in organs
leukopenia aka low WBC count, decrease in # of disease-fighting WBC's circulating in blood. Difficulty fighting infections
polycythemia abnormal increase in # of RBC's in the blood due to excess production of these cells by bone marrow
sepsis aka septicemia, potentially life-threatening infection resulting from bacteria or other infectious organisms entering bloodstm
blood poisoning sepsis
thrombocytopenia condition which abnormally small # of platelets circulating in blood. associated w/ abnormal bleeding
thrombocytosis abnormal increase in # of platelets in circulating blood
hemorrhage loss of a large amt of blood in short time
transfusion reaction serious & potentially fatal complication of blood transfusion which sever immune response occurs b/c mismatch
cholesterol fatty substance that travels through blood & found in all parts of body.
cholesterol aids in production of cell membranes, some hormones, & vitamin D.
excessively high levels of certain types of cholesterol can lead to heart disease
hyperlipidemia general term used to describe elevated levels of cholesterol & other fatty substances in blood
total cholesterol measured in terms of milligrams (mg) per deciliter (dL). Desirable below 200mg/dL, borderline high 200-239 mg/dL
milligram equivalency in grams one-thousandth of a gram
deciliter equivalency in liters one-tenth of a liter
low-density lipoprotien cholesterol LDL - bad cholesterol b/c excess qty of LDL contribute to plaque buildup in arteries.
LDL Levels Optimal below 100 mg/dL, Near Optimal 100-129, Borderline high 130-159, high 160-189, very high 190+
high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL - good cholesterol b/c it carries unneeded cholesterol back to liver for processing & doesn't contribute to plaque buildup
HDL Levels Low below 40 mg/dL, high above 60
triglycerides combinations of fatty acids attached to glycerol that are also found normally in blood in limited qty
triglyceride levels Normal below 150 mg/dL, borderline high 150-199, high 200-499, very high 500+
myelodysplastic syndrome type of cancer in which insufficient production of 1 or more types of blood cells due to dysfunction of bone marrow. Some develop acute myeloid leukemia
leukemia type of cancer characterized by progressive increase in # of abnormal leukocytes (WBCs) found in blood-forming tissues, other organs, & circulating in blood.
types of leukemia named by named based on how quickly they progress & type of WBC's involved.
most common types of leukemia acute or chronic myeloid leukemia, acute or chronic lymphoblastic leukemia
anemia lower-than-norm # of RBC's in blood, causing fatigue & shortness of breath. Measured by decrease of hemoglobin in blood.
aplastic anemia absence of all formed blood elements caused by failure of blood cell production in bone marrow
leukopenia low WBC count causes increased risk of infection
thrombocytopenia low platelet count results in bleeding especially from mucous membranes & skin
iron-deficiency anemia most common form of anemia, blood cannot carry oxygen effectively. Can be caused by blood loss, poor absorption, inadeq.
Iron helps create ______ hemoglobin, w/ insufficient iron blood cannot carry oxygen effectively
megaloblastic anemia blood disorder characterized by anemia in which RBC's are larger than normal. Usually results from deficiency of folic acid or B12
megalo- large
blast immature
pernicious anemia caused by lack or protein intrinsic factor (IF) that helps body absorb B12 from gastrointestinal tract.
Vitamin B12 essential for formation of RBC's
hemolytic anemia characterized by inadequate # of circulating RBC's due to premature destruction of RBC's by spleen. inherited/ acquired
hemolytic pertaining to hemolysis, the breaking down of RBC's.
2 most common hereditary hemolytic anemias sickle cell anemia, thalassemia
sickle cell anemia serious genetic disorder that causes abnormal hemoglobin, resulting in some RBC's assuming abnormal sickle shape.
thalassemia inherited blood disorder that causes mild or sever anemia due to reduced hemoglobin & fewer RBC's than norm.
hypertension aka HTN, high blood pressure, elevation of arterial bp to level likely to cause damage to cardiovascular system.
essential hypertension aka primary hypertension or idiopathic hypertension, consistently elevated bp of unknown cause.
idiopathic disease of unknown cause
secondary hypertension caused by different medical problem such as kidney disorder or tumor on adrenal glands. Usually absent when problem disaprs
malignant hypertension very high bp, condition can be fatal & usually accompanied by damage to organs, brain, optic nerves, or failure heart/ kidneys
hypotension lower-than-normal arterial bp. symptoms: dizziness, light-headedness, fainting.
orthostatic hypotension aka postural hypotension, low bp that occurs upon standing up.
orthostatic relating to an upright or standing position
normal blood pressure levels systolic less than 120, diastolic less than 80
prehypertension levels systolic btw 120-139, diastolic btw 80-89
Stage 1 Hypertension levels systolic btw 140-159, diastolic btw 90-99
Stage 2 Hypertension levels systolic 160 or higher, diastolic or 100 or higher
angiography radiographic study of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium
angiogram resulting film of an angiography, used to study blood flow in arteries, veins, & bv's of heart
cardiac catheterization diagnostic & treatment procedure in which catheter passed into vein or artery then guided into heart
digital subtraction angiography aka DSA, uses angiography w/ computer assistance to clarify view of area of interest. Subtracts soft tissue & bones from image
duplex ultrasound diagnostic procedure to image structures of bv's & flow of blood through vessels. show structure of bv's.
doppler ultrasound shows movement of RBC's through vessels
venography aka phlebography, radiographic test that provides an image of specific veins after contrast dye injected. detect DVT
venogram resulting film of a venography.
electrocardiography noninvasive process of recording electrical activity of myocardium
electr/o electric
noninvasive procedure does not require insertion of instrument or device through skin or body opening for diagnosis or treatment
electrocardiogram record of the electrical activity of the myocardium.
Holter monitor portable electrocardiograph that is worn by an ambulatory patient to continuously monitor heart rates/ rhythms (24-48hr)
stress test assesses cardiovascular health & function during/ after stress
thallium stress test evaluates how well blood flows through coronary arteries of heart muscle during exercise.
compliance accuracy and consistency w/ which patient follows physician's instructions
antihypertensive meds administed to lower bp
ACE inhibitor angiotensin-converting enzyme. Blocks action of enzyme that causes bv's to contract, resulting in hypertension.
Angiotensin II receptor blockers ARBs have similar action/ effect as ACE inhibitors
beta-blocker reduces workload of heart by slowing rate of heartbeat. Lower bp, relieve angina, or treat heart failure
calcium channel blocker agents cause heart & bv's to relax by decreasing movement of calcium into cells of these structures. Increase blood supply & oxygen
diuretic stimulate kidneys to increase secretion of urine to rid body of excess sodium & water. Reduce fluid circulating in blood.
antiarrhythmic medication administered to control irregularities of heartbeat
anticoagulant slows coagulation & prevents new clots from forming
coagulation process of blood clotting
blood thinners anticoagulants - although they don't thin blood.
coumadin brand name for warfarin, anticoagulant to prevent blood clost from forming or growing larger.
heparin common anticoagulant. Works faster than coumadin, but injection or IV solution.
aspirin 81mg may be recommended to reduce risk of heart attack or stroke by reducing ability of blood to clot
cholesterol-lowering drugs used to combat hyperlipidemia by reducing undesirable cholesterol levels in blood
digitalis digoxin, strengthens contraction of heart muscle, slows heart rate, helps eliminate fluid from body tissues. Foxglove plant.
thrombolytic aka clot-busting drug, dissolves or causes thrombus to break up
thrombolytic therapy use of drugs to break up a thrombus
tissue plasminogen activator thrombolytic to patients having heart attack or stroke. Administered in few hrs, can dissolve damaging blood clots
vasoconstrictor causes bv's to narrow. Ex Antihistamines * decongestants.
vasodilator causes bv's to expand.
nitroglycerin vasodilator to prevent or relieve pain of angina by dilating bv's to heart. Increases blood flow & oxygen to heart.
How is nitroglycerin administered sublingually, transdermally, orally as spray.
cardiopulmonary bypass aka CPB, heart-lung machine, device sometimes used to maintain circulation of blood & oxygen to body during surgery
angioplasty technique of mechanically widening a narrowed or obstructed bv
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty aka PTCA, balloon angioplasty. Small balloon on end of catheter used to open partially blocked coronary artery by stretching
laser angioplasty laser on end of catheter, using beams of light to remove plaque deposit.
stent wire-mesh tube commonly placed after artery has been opened. provides support to arterial wall, keeps plaque away, prevents restenosis
restenosis condition when artery that has been opened by angioplasty closes again
atherectomy surgical removal of plaque buildup from interior of an artery.
carotid endarterectomy surgical removal of lining of portion of clogged carotid artery leading to brain. To reduce risk of stroke
coronary artery bypass graft aka CABG, bypass surgery. opening of chest, piece of vein from leg or chest implanted on heart to replace blocked coronary artery & improve flow of blood to heart
minimally invasive coronary artery bypass aka keyhole bypass or buttonhole bypass. Alternative technique for some bypass patients
defibrillation aka cardioversion, use of electrical shock to restore heart's normal rhythm.
defibrillator device providing shock for defibrillation
artificial pacemaker primarily as treatment for bradycardia or atrial fibrillation. Attached externally or implanted under skin
implantable cardioverter-defibrillator ICD, double-action pacemaker that constantly regulates to ensure beat not too slow & if disruption occurs, acts as automatic defibrillator
cardiac ablation aka catherter ablation, procedure that uses radio-frequency energy (heat) or cryoablation (extreme cold) to scar or destroy heart tissue triggering abnormal heart rhythm
ablation removal or destruction of tissue, to treat prostate cancer
valvuloplasty surgical repair of heart valve
heart valve replacement surgery to replace 1 of the heart's 4 heart valves, usually aortic or mitral. replaced w/ mechanical or animal/ human tissue
transcatheter aortic valve replacement TAVR relatively new, minimally invasive procedure in which existing valve left in place & collapsible replacement valve delivered to site through catheter. Expanded inside defective
cardiopulmonary resuscitation aka CRP, emergency procedure for life support consisting of artificial respiration & manual external cardiac compression
cardiopulonary pertaining to the heart & lungs
compression-only resuscitation effective in keeping patient suffering from cardiac arrest alive until pro responders arrive.
aneurysmectomy surgical removal of an aneurysm
aneurysmorrhaphy aka aneurysmoplasty, surgical suturing of an aneurysm
aneurysm clipping surgical method to isolate aneurysm from rest of circulatory system by placing small clip across its neck. Titanium clip prevents blood flowing into aneurysm
arteriectomy surgical removal of part of an artery
hemostasis to stop or control bleeding. Can be accomplished by formation of blood clot by body or through external app of pressure to block blood flow
plasmapheresis aka plasma exchange, removal of whole blood from body & separation of blood's cellular elements. RBC's & platelets suspended in saline & returned to circulatory system.
A-fib atrial fibrillation
AED automated external defibrillator
ICD implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
card cath, CC cardiac catheterization
CVI chronic venous insuficiency
CABG coronary artery bypass gift
CAD coronary artery disease
EKG, ECG electrocardiogram
HTN hypertension
MI myocardial infarction
PAD peripheral artery disease
PVD peripheral vascular disease
TST thallium stress test
tPA tissue plasminogen activator
V-fib ventricular fibrillation
Created by: kld0519