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AMHS World History 1

AMHS Wold History - Semester 1 (Age of Exploration - Industrial Revolution)

QuestionAnswer
Bartolomeu Dias A Portuguese explorer, sailed along the coast of Africa and down to the Cape of Good Hope in hopes of establishing trade routes to India and China.
Brunelleschi Architect and Artist, most famous for designing the dome and baptismal of Florence.
Christopher Columbus Italian born sailor and explorer. Sailed for the king and queen of Spain (Ferdinand and Isabella). Sailed west in the hopes of finding new and faster trade routes to China. First Voyage to the new world made in 1492.
Ferdinand Magellen Portuguese explorer who was the first person to plan and begin a trip to sail completely around the world (circumnavigate). Sailed around the Southern tip of South America (Tierra del Fuego). Died in the Philippines before the completion of his voyage.
Francisco Pizarro Spanish solider and conquistador. Explored and conquered the South American region that is now Peru. Conquered the Incan Empire
Henry the Navigator Portuguese King in the 15th century. Establish a royal court and college for the development of sciences and skills important for naval exploration. Ultimate goal was to sponsor a trip that would find a faster trade route to India and China via Africa
Hernan Cortes Spanish Conquistador, in the area that is now Mexico, conquered the Aztecs
Vasco De Gama Portuguese explorer, who sailed along the western coast of Africa, learned about Muslim traders already active in Africa and India, De Gama and his crew eventually made it to Calcut (now Calcutta) in India.
Cosimo De Medici Patriarch (LEADER) of the Florentine Merchant family the Medici, banking and political power. Medicis were patrons of the arts and sciences in Florence during the Italian Renaissance.
Johannes Gutenberg Developer of the movable type printing press in Europe, The invention of the printing press revolutionized the making and distribution of printed material and encouraged the spread of literacy and new ideas.
John Calvin Protestant Reformer, Studied as a lawyer and humanities. Established Calvinism in Geneva, Forbid many luxuries such as jewellery, singing, dancing, feasting, and bright color for clothing.
Leonardo Da Vinci Italian painter, inventor, sculptor. Studied physics, anatomy, astronomy, and mathematics. Lived for most of his life in Florence, Italy.
Martin Luther German Protestant Reformer, Studied law and was a monk in the Catholic Church. Fed up with the corruption in the Church (the sail of indulgences, worship of saints) his "95 theses" which led to the Protestant Reformation and the Lutheran Faith.
Michelangelo Italian Renaissance painter and sculptor. Most famous for; the Sistine Chapel, the Pieta, the David (in Florence)
Nicholas Machiavelli Italian writer, philosopher, and statesman. Established principles of governance and rule. Described men as fickled and deceivers. Author of "The Prince" which describe a ruler who used any means necessary to maintain power and rule.
Pop Leo X Catholic Pope during the time of Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation. Excommunicated Luther following the publication of the "95 theses."
Copernicus Prussian (Polish) scientist and astronomer, advocate for the heliocentric model of the galaxy. Eventually burned at the stake as a heretic because his views and models for astronomy contradicted the dogma found in the Catholic Church at this time.
Sir Francis Bacon English scientist, one of the two people who developed the Scientific Method (along with Descartes). Held the belief that everything should be held as suspect until proven with logic, reason, and experimentation.
Galileo Galilei Italian Scientist and Astronomer, supporter of the heliocentric model of the galaxy, built first telescope, first person to observe many different astronomical phenomena, also did experiments in physics and motion.
King Henry VIII English King and Tudor monarch during the 16th century. Had six wives. Three Children; Mary I, Elizabeth I, and one son (John?). Established the Church of England (Anglican)
Isaac Newton English Scientist and philosopher. Explained theories of gravity and eventually the math that would become calculus.
James Watt Scottish Inventor (circa 1736-1819) Made improvements to the steam Engine
Jean-Jacques Rousseau French Philosopher and revolutionary, the Social Contract that existed between a government and the people. Believed in the general goodness of people, the role of government to settle disputes, and the separation of church and state. Equality for all.
Johannes Kepler German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer. Key Figure of the Scientific Revolution. Known for his laws of planetary motion.
John Locke English Philosopher, people born with inalienable rights of life, liberty, and property.
King Louis XIV Bourbon King of France, aka Louise the Great, or the Sun King. Reigned for more than 72 years (longer than any other European Monarch of the time)
King Louis XV Bourbon King of France, aka Louis the Beloved, Great grandson of Louis XIV, ascended to the throne at the age of 5.
King Louis XVI Bourbon King of France at the time of the French Revolution. Married to Marie Antoinette. Beheaded by the guillotine during the Revolution.
Marie Antoinette Queen of France, daughter of Austrian Empress Maria Theresa, wife of French King Louis XVI
Maximilian Robspierre Dedicated to the French Revolution, lead the national convention. Highly radical.
Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I) French Military Commander at the time of the French Revolution. After the Revolution he remained a military commander. Eventually proclaimed Emperor of France. Lead numerous military campaigns across Europe. Ultimately defeated at Waterloo and exiled.
Renaissance French word, literally meaning "rebirth," referring to a renewal or re-emergance of ideas and knowledge from Ancient Greece and Rome, as well as from the Asian and Arab empires.
Social Classes Division of a population based upon economic, social, religious, or hereditary grounds. Typical Classes - Pleabian, Merchant, Religious, Aristocracy, Monarch.
Venice City State in Northern Italy. City economy based upon Merchant and trade with the east. Italian end of the "Silk Road," became rich as a result of the trade with the East. City has canals.
Florence City State in Northern Italy, ruled by the Medici. Major center of the Italian Renaissance. Banking and Trade center of Italy. Home of Da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, and countless other Italian Renaissance Artists.
Milan City State in Northern Italy that became prosperous as a result of trade along the Silk Road. Other important trade cities in Italy were Florence and Venice.
Causes of the Renaissance 1. Black Death lead to end of European overpopulation. 2. Free Time (as a result of higher wages) 3. Fall of Constantinople 4. Rise of the Patonage System
Perspective (in art) The use of a focal point or layering to create the illusion of three dimensions in two.
Humanism Intellectual Movement focusing on the development of the human mind, the rediscovery of ancient Greek and Roman learning. And the Belief that humankind had agency and free will.
Movement of the Renaissance away from Italy 1. Trade 2. The Fall of the Northern Italian Cities after the invasion of the French Armies. Florence Fell with the rise of Savonarola (The Bonfire of the Vanities)
Printing Press Invention the revolutionized the manufacture and creation of books and text. Eventually lead to the rise in literacy and the rapid spread of information and ideas. Credited with helping spread the Renaissance and the Reformation.
Patronage System The funding of art and artists, for the sake of art. Allowed artists to devote their time to the practice and perfection of their craft.
"Renaissance Man" The idea that a person should be skilled in many areas of knowledge or skill. For example, a person should know language, art, math, theology, and medicine; as well as be practice in the martial or military arts.
Reformation Social movement following the Renaissance where numerous Christian religious sects developed in protest of corruption in the Catholic Church. Origin of the Protestant Movements.
Indulgence A mechanism within the Medieval Catholic Church that mitigated a person's time in purgatory. Seen as a large source of corruption by the Protestant Reformers.
Martin Luther German Lawyer, monk, and professor or law and theology. Saw the corruption of the post Renaissance Catholic church and wrote/posted his "95 Theses" to rectify these corruptions.
95 Theses List of Grievances and Corruptions seen by Martin Luther in the Catholic Church. Largely seen as the beginning of the Protestant Reformation.
Causes of the Age of Exploration The Fall of Constantinople and thus the loss access to trade routes to and from the East.
The Age of Exploration Time period during the 15th Century characterized by sea exploration to establish trade routes and colonization.
Colombian Exchange The transfer of goods, plants, animals, culture, language, people and disease between European and American populations.
Effects of the Colombian Exchange Introduction of non-native (non-indigenous) plants, animals, people, diseases into American populations by Europeans (or vice-versa - into European populations by Americans)
Mercantilism Economic principle where a nation imports raw materials and exports manufactured or finished products; often to the detriment of colonial holdings. (limit imports and maximize exports)
Effect of introducing new diseases to a population. Large amounts of unexposed population dies.
Guns, Germs, and Steel Book (Movie) detailing the role of disease in the conquering and colonization of the New World by European powers.
Joint Stock Company A company that sells shares to joint ownership to shareholders.
Ecomienda System Economic model used by the Spanish gov. to reward the conquistadors with tracks of land in the new world and enslaved the indigenous population. These new land holders sent taxes back to Spain and converting the population to Christianity.
British East India Company Private company (in Britain) that controlled trade between the British Empire and countries and, nations, and holdings in Asia.
Commodities Trade goods; products exchanged in a market system. Goods or items assigned value because of trade.
Small Pox A viral disease introduced to the New World by European conquerors.
The Bubonic Plague The black death, aka yersinea pestis
Atlantic Slave Trade The forces removal and transportation of indigenous African people to the new world for the purposes of using these persons as forced labor. These persons in essence became the property of their "owners" and had no rights of their own.
Constantinople Capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, aka the Byzantine Empire.
Fall of Constantinople When Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in the 14th Century. This cut Europe off from trade with the East (India, China). This lead eventually to the Age of Exploration and the Renaissance.
Spain A Country is Southern Europe located on the Iberian Peninsula. Highly Catholic Nation, United into a single nation in the 15th Century during under Ferdinand and Isabella.
France Country in Central/Western Europe, formerly the Roman colony of Gaul. United in the 13th Century under the Charlemagne. For much of the 15th through 18th Centuries was a major military and economic power in Europe.
Reconquista During the 15th Century the Spanish government expelled non-catholic populations (Jews and Muslims) with force.
England Island Nation on the Western Coast of Europe
Russia Massive Nation occupying Eastern Europe and Asia.
Absolutism The idea that a government should be founded with a monarch at the head and that the Monarch should have complete or "absolute" power.
Divine Right The idea that certain rights, or privileges are granted by God, that right, can't be questioned.
Divine Right to Rule. The idea that a God has chosen certain individuals to rule a population. Lead to the creation of Absolute Monarchs such as the Bourbon Kings of France, King James II of England and Scotland, Katherine the Great or Peter the Great of Russia.
Huguenots French Protestants
English Civil War War between Royalists and Parliamentarians in the 17th Century. Ended with the execution of Charles I and Charles II. Monarchy replaced by the Commonwealth. At this point, the monarch ruled with the approval of parliament.
Glorious Revolution War in England (1688) to overthrow King James II (an absolute monarch) and Replacing him with William of Orange and Mary II of England. Referred to as Glorious because there was virtually no loss of life.
Constitutional Monarchy System of government with a Monarch (king, queen, prince, etc.) that has power retrained and duties defined by a constitution and parliament.
Thirty Year War Series of religious wars in Europe. One of the longest and most destructive periods of conflict in European History (before the Napoleonic and World Wars).
Treaty of Westphalia Treaty ending the 30 Years Wars, established the modern idea of a nation state. Or the idea that the internal politics, policies, or religions of a nation are of no concern to foreign powers. The goal was to prevent future religious wars.
Important Discoveries of the Scientific Revolution Steam Engine, Scientific Method
Ideas before and after the Scientific Revolution Before: Mysticism, Superstition, reliance on faith and the Church After: Logic, Reason, Empirical evidence, Experimentation, Humanism, Natural law.
Church resistance to the Scientific Revolution New discoveries contradicted or challenged scripture, tradition, or accepted dogma.
Natural Laws Law, or pattern, that is universal and applies to all situations.
Scientific Method Multi-step Process for discovering and exploring the natural world. 1. Hypothesis 2. Theory 3. Experimentation 4. Observation 5. Conclusion
Enlightenment Intellectual Movement where people began to think about and recognize the autonomy and agency of the individual. Ethics, Philosophy, and the Idea of Universal Human Rights emerged/changed the way populations interacted with their leaders and government.
Enlightenment Values Social Values: Freedom of Religion, Equality Political Values: Separation of Powers, Universal Rights, Universal Suffrage (among white men), democracy
French Revolution Period of violence and political upheaval in France during the 18th century. Overthrew the existing Bourbon monarch and established (a short-lived) Republic.
Causes of the French Revolution Political Inequality (An absolute Monarch Louis XVI), extreme poverty, wealth inequality, famine.
Age of Reason aka The Enlightenment
First, Second, and Third Estates The organization of Pre-Revolutionary French society (and government) into groups: Clergy, Nobility, Everyone Else
First Estate The Catholic Church
Second Estate The Nobility
Third Estate Everybody that was not a member of the Church or the Nobility (98% of the population).
Estates General Pre-Revolutionary Parliamentary body in France.
The Tennis Court Oath Oath by members of the Third Estate (aka the General Assembly) at the start of the French Revolution, , to not separate until France had a written Constitution. Tennis Court Oath b/c took place on a tennis court.
Declaration of the Rights of Man 1789 France - Basic Charter of Human Rights that inspired the French Revolution.
The Bastille French Prison before the French Revolution. Used often to hold important prisoners. Viewed as a symbol of despotism of the Bourbon monarchy.
Storming the Bastille Early in the French Revolution, the Revolutionary forces seized the Bastille, freed the prisoners (only 7 of them). This event was the Flashpoint of the French Revolution.
March on Versailles aka The Women's March on Versailles, was an early and significant event of the French Revolution. Protesting famine and the high price of flour. Encouraged by revolutionaries, the women (and others) gather weapons/ransacked the village of Versailles.
The Guillotine Newly Invented tool/weapon, used during the French Revolution (and beyond) as a method of execution via decapitation. The guillotine was seen as a more humane method of execution.
The Reign of Terror Period of the French Revolution, that following the creation of the Revolutionary Tribunal. It is estimated that the total number of deaths during this period could be as high as 250,000 Royalists and 200,000 Republicans.
Committee of Public Safety Powerful political committee during the French Revolution. Functioned as the de facto executive cabinet during the revolution.
The Napoleonic Wars Series of smaller wars of conquest. Period of military conquest throughout Europe by the French under the command of Napoleon. Ultimate outcome is the rise of Spheres of Influence, the rise of the modern idea of the nation state, treaty of Westphalia.
Industrial Revolution Time period during which a move was made from an agricultural based economy to one which relied upon trade and manufacture of goods. Large scale urban growth and development.
Effects of Industrialization Mercantilism, Urban Population Growth, Emergence of Blue Collar vs White Collar Classes.
Causes of the Industrial Revolution Humanism, Scientific Revolution
Social Effects of the Industrial Revolution Worker's Rights, Universal Suffrage, Workplace Safety, Social Sciences
Political Effects of the Industrial Revolution Emergence of social movements, universal sufferage, socialism/communism, worker's rights, 50 hour work week, minimum wage
Economic Effects of the Industrial Revolution Early beginnings of social reform movements, worker's rights, emergence of the disposable economy, decline of cottage industries
Tenements Large Apartment Buildings that housed factory workers and other low-wage earners during the Industrial Revolution.
Working Conditions during (and immediately after) the Industrial Revolution. No workplace safety standards, dangerous working conditions, low wages, long hours, no worker unions
Created by: rbocko