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pyelonephritis an infection of the kidneys and renal pelvis
acute pyelonephritis abrupt onset with chills and fever, headache, low back pain and tenderness and costovertebral angle, general malaise with urinary frequency, urgency, and dysuria
chronic pyelonephritis a progessive condition caused by severe hypertension leading to scarring and deformation of kidneys. leads to ESRD
saturation theory kidney stones created by urine saturated with components
inhibition theory kidney stones created by a deficiency of endogenous compounds that normally inhibit stone formation
matrix theory kidney stones created by organic materials that acts as a nucleus for stone formation
calcium stones the most common stone formed from increased calcium in the blood and urine
magnesium ammonium phosphate stones stones formed in alkaline urine in the presence of bacteria; always associated with UTI's
uric acid stones stones formed with increased concentration of uric acid
cystine stones stones formed from a defect in the renal transport of cystine
renal colic the pain from kidney stones
triad of renal cancer hematuria, palpable mass, and costovertebral pain
benign prostatic hyperplasia nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate gland; compresses urethra, retention of urine, and progressive distention of bladder
prostatitis inflammation of the prostate gland
acute prostatitis caused by ascending infection of the urinary tract
chronis prostatitis caused by recurrent UTI's
nonbacterial prostatitis inflammation of the prostate w/o infection
prostatodynia symptoms of nonbacterial prostatitis but no inflammation of the prostate
Creatine Product of creatine metabolism from muscle;its production is directly dependent on muscle mass.
Factors that decrease the serum creatinine concentrations low muscle mass, diet without meat,
Factors that increase the serum creatinine concentrations exercise, big muscle mass, diet with meat, drugs (cimetidine, trimethoprim)
Urinalysis assessment of its chemical and physical compositon of urine
pH of urine normal range 4.5-7.8
Urine specific gravity 1.003-1.030. Measure of the kidney's ability to make concentrated urine.
Urine Glucose Normally absent. Threshhold for glucose reabsorption is 180 mg/dL. Glucosuria will be present when the threshhold is exceeded.
Nitrite, Leucocyte Esterase Suggestive of urinary tract infection when found in urine
Heme Present in urine suggests hemoglobulin or myoglobulin
Formed elements in urine Erythrocytes and leucocytes, casts and crystals
Created by: rsg175