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Risorgimento Meant the "Resurgence". The nationalistic movement that aspired for the resurrection of the Roman Empire.
Congress of Vienna This restored all of the conservative monarchs back to power. Helped unify Germany.
Conservative They were anti-Enlightenment and encouraged absolutism.
Liberal They supported the Enlightenment and opposed absolutism.
Revolutions of 1848 A series of unsuccessful liberal revolts in Europe. This raised nationalistic tensions.
Nationalism The belief that people with a common language, background and heritage should unite to create a nation.
Giuseppe Mazzini He was an extremely passionate nationalistic who wanted Italy to be a republic. Known as the "Father of Italian Nationalism".
Count Cavour He unified Northern Italy though political manipulation and drove Austria out Northern Italy.
Giuseppe Garibaldi He used military power to expel the Spanish Bourbons from Southern Italy. Military known as the "Red Shirts".
German Confederacy Was created by the Congress of Vienna to replace the Holy Roman Empire. This was a step towards German unification.
German Empire Germany after the German Confederacy. The end result of the Franco-Prussian War.
Wilhelm I The first emperor of the German Empire. The king of Prussia.
Otto von Bismarck A leader of Prussia who instigated the Franco-Prussian war. The first Chancellor of the German Empire who was known as the "Iron Chancellor".
Franco-Prussian War Instigated by Otto von Bismarck. This was the final push for German unification and helped with Italian unification as well.
Realpolitik The philosophy developed by Otto von Bismarck. Politics should be based on practicality and efficiency rather morality or idealism
Mercantilism Colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country. Due to this, free trade was eliminated and that was conservative.
Peninsulares The top of the social structure in the Latin American colonies. People born in Spain who served the crown as Viceroys and Governors and as high colonial officers.
Criollos/creoles They were the children of the peninsulares and were not allowed to hold high government posts. They did enjoy a high standard of living.
Mestizos Part European and part Amerindian. Due to their partial European blood, they had a social status than those who were fully Amerindian.
Amerindian The indigenous people of the Americas. They had a small measure of legal protection, but were still mainly poor and peasants.
Toussaint L'Ouverture A former slave who led the successful slave rebellion that secured the freedom of the enslaved population and ultimately, Haitian independence.
Father Miguel Hidalgo A Catholic priest who rallied the peasant population of New Spain. He was captured and executed before the independence of Mexico.
Simon Bolivar Known as "the Liberator". He led revolutions in Northern South America. While his vision of the formation of one nation named Gran Colombia failed, many independent nations were formed.
Monroe Doctrine This was issued by President James Monroe. It protected Latin America from European control by stating that America would regard it as a threat if European powers tried to impose their systems upon any Latin country.
Created by: PravarJ