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Digestive System

Structures

QuestionAnswer
What are other names for for the Digestive System? Gastrointestinal Tract, Digestive Tract, Alimentary Tract (30ft)
What is another name for the Oral cavity? Buccal Cavity
What are the Structures of the Oral Cavity? Lips, Cheeks, Hard palate, Soft palate, Uvula, Tongue
What is the tongues function? Sense of taste and assists in chewing and swallowing.
What is mastication? Chewing
What is deglutition? Swallowing
What are the 3 Salivary glands? Parotids, Submandibulars, Sublinguals
What's the function of the salivary glands? Secrete saliva that contains digestive enzymes to aid in the digestive process.
What is Amylase? Aids in the digestion of carbohydrates(enzyme in saliva)
What is Lipase? Aids in the digestion of fats(enzyme in saliva)
What's the purpose of the Pharynx? Serves as a passageway for the respiratory and digestive system.
What's the Oropharynx? Section leading away from the oral cavity.
What's the Nasopharynx? Portion of pharynx behind nasal cavity.
What's the Laryngopharynx? Lower portion of the pharynx that opens into the esophagus and larynx.
What's the function of the Esophagus? Recieves food from pharynx and propels it to the stomach.
What's the function of the cardiac sphincter(lower esophageal sphincter)? Controls the passage of food from the esophagus into the stomach.
What's the Fundus? Upper rounded portion of the stomach
What's the Body(of the stomach)? The central portion
What's the Pylorus? Lower tubular area(gastric antrum)
What are Rugae? Folds in mucous membranes of the stomach
What's the function of the Pyloric sphincter? Regulates the passage of food from the stomach to the duodenum
What is the function of the stomach? Gastric juices break down the food and the muscular action causes churning of food.
What is Chyme? Liquid mixture of partially digested food and digestive secretions.
What's another name for the small intestine? Small bowel(20ft)
What are the 3 parts the small intestine divided into? Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
What's the function of the small intestine? Completes the digestive process through absorption, increased by the presence of villi(finger like projections)
What are the structures of the Large intestine? Cecum, Ascending colon, Transverse colon, Descending colon, Sigmoid colon, Rectum, Anus
What does the Cecum contain? The appendix hangs from the lower portion of the Cecum.
What does the Ascending colon contain? Hepatic flexure
What does the transverse colon contain? Splenic flexure
Where is the liver located? Immediately under the diaphragm slightly to the right.
What's the livers digestive function? Produce bile for emulsification of fats in the small intestine
What are the additional functions of the liver? Excrete bile pigments into bile, synthesis of vitamin K-dependent plasma proteins, amino acid, carbs, and fat metabolism, phagocytosis, detoxification, and storage of vital nutrients such as glucose.
Where is the gallbladder located? The pear shaped sac under the surface of the liver
What is the gallbladders main function? To store and concentrate bile
What does bile do? Emulsifies fat
Where is the pancreas located? The upper left quadrant of the abdomen behind the stomach
What does the pancreas function as? The endocrine and exocrine gland
What's the function of the exocrine gland? Manufacture digestive juices. Contains a duct to transport hormones and enzymes.
What is Trypsin? Digestive juice that breaks down proteins
What is Pancreatic lipase? Digestive juice that breaks down fats
What is Pancreatic amylase? Digestive juice that breaks down carbs
What is Sodium bicarbonate? Digestive juice that neutralizes acidic stomach contents
What's the function of the endocrine gland? Manufacture insulin and glucagon. Is ductless just throws enzymes and hormones into blood
What is insulin? Hormone that allows glucose to pass from blood through cell membranes to be used for energy. Promotes conversion of excess glucose into glycogen
What is Glucagon? Hormone that stimulates the liver to convert glycogen into glucose when needed.
What is the primary responsibility of teeth? Mastication(chewing) food Is ground by teeth and softened by saliva
What's another name for the primary teeth? Deciduous teeth or milky teeth
How many primary teeth are there? 20
What's another name for secondary teeth? Permanent teeth and they begin to appear around 6 years
What are Incisors? Teeth with chiseled shape and sharp edges for biting food
What are Canines(cuspid teeth)? Teeth that are used for grasping and tearing food
What are the Bicuspids(premolars) and Molars? Teeth with flat surfaces and multiple projections for crushing and grinding food.
What are the structures of teeth? Crown, neck, root, and root canal
What is the crown? Visible part of tooth covered with enamel which is the hardest substance in the body
What is the neck? Lies beneath the gum line
What is the root? Embedded in the bony socket of the jaw bone
What is the root canal? CENTRAL core of the tooth
Created by: MedicalMermaid