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CH 14&15 Test Review

OC Chapter 14 & 15 Maya, Aztec, Inca Questions

The first people to arrive in the Americas were hunter-gatherers.
What land features are found in North America? mountains, deserts, grassy plains
How does the climate change as one moves from the northernmost part of North America to the south? It changes from cold and icy to warmer temperatures.
Where is Mesoamerica? the southern part of what is now Mexico and parts of the northern countries of Central America
Why were farmers in Mesoamerica successful at domesticating plants in this region? It had a warm climate and very fertile soil.
What is the most accepted theory as to how the first people arrived in the Americas? People walked across a land bridge that crossed the Bering Strait.
What were the main sources of food of the early people in the Americas? bison, woolly mammoths, fruits, nuts, and wild grains
When early people learned to plant seeds and farm, what major impact did this have on their lives? They were able to settle in one place.
What is the name of the peoples who formed the first urban civilization in Mesoamerica? The Olmec
The Olmec are considered a complex civilization because they built impressive towns, buildings, and artwork and had writing and scientific study.
What crop helped establish a reliable food source for the early people in Mesoamerica? maize (corn)
Why did the Maya live in heavily forested areas even though they needed cleared land for crops? Forest environments provided additional food and wood from trees and other plants.
What is obsidian? a glasslike volcanic rock that the Maya traded
What was special about cacao (coca) beans? They had great value, were restricted to only the most important Maya, and used as money.
What types of buildings did the Maya build in their large cities? pyramids, plazas, temples
For what purpose was the temple in the city of Palenque built? to record the achievements of the king Pacal
In order to increase the amount of land to cultivate, farmers shaped nearby hillsides into flat terraces on which to plant crops.
What did cities hope to gain from fighting with enemy cities? power and land
Describe Maya warfare. very bloody, involving hand-to-hand fighting with clubs and spears
What caused the collapse of the Maya civilization? Historians aren’t sure but think it was a mix of several factors.
What are some theories about the decline of the Maya? drought, over-population, warfare, poor leadership
The vast majority of Maya people within the lower class were farmers.
Some responsibilities of the Mayan lower class were had to give some crops to the rulers, had to help construct buildings, temples, palaces, and other buildings, had to serve in the army during times of war
Of all the groups in Maya society, who held the lowest position? slaves
What very important religious ability did the Maya believe their kings had? the ability to communicate with the gods
In order to prevent disasters, the Maya believed their gods needed blood.
For what two main purposes did the Maya use calendars? to coordinate planting and harvesting and for planning religious events
What significant mathematical concept did the Maya help develop? They were one of the first peoples with a symbol for zero.
In what way was the Maya writing system similar to Egyptian hieroglyphics? They used symbols to represent both objects and sounds.
How did the Maya create records of their culture? They carved symbols into large stone tablets or wrote in bark-paper books.
What is the Popol Vuh? A book that is a valuable source of information about the Maya.
After the first Aztecs discovered that there was no good farmland, they hired themselves out as skilled fighters/warriors.
How did the Aztecs conquer the other cities located around Lake Texcoco? They formed a secret alliance with two other cities.
A tribute was a payment to a more powerful ruler or country.
Other than trading their goods, what key role did many merchants perform for the Aztec emperors? They were spies, alerting the emperors to possible troubles in other regions.
Before the arrival of the Europeans (Spaniards), the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán was a thriving city with about 200,000 residents.
What is the name for the type of floating gardens the Aztecs built? chinampas
What were the 3 key factors in the rise of the Aztec Empire? war, tribute, and trade
What are the 3 main reasons the Spainish traveled to the Americas? to explore new land, to find gold/riches, to spread the Catholic religion
What did the Spaniards unknowingly bring with them that helped them conquer the Aztecs? smallpox and other diseases
What prompted Moctezuma II to welcome Hernán Cortés? Moctezuma thought that Cortés was the Aztec god Quetzalcoatl.
Other Native American tribes made alliances with Cortés because they did not like paying tribute to the Aztecs.
How did Tenochtitlán’s location help lead to the fall of the Aztec Empire? The conquistadors could easily cut off the Aztecs’ access to supplies.
What role did horses play in the conquest of the Aztecs? Horses were large and powerful and the Aztecs were terrified of them.
Who was the Aztec woman who helped Cortés defeat the Aztecs? Malintzin
The sons of Aztec nobles were sent to special schools to learn to be government officials, military leaders, or priests
What groups of people were the lowest class in Aztec society? farmers and slaves
What is a codex? a book of historical records
What role did human sacrifices play in Aztec society? They were believed to be necessary to keep the gods happy.
What was the main difference between the Aztecs’ religion and the Catholic religion? The Aztecs believed in hundreds of gods and the conquistadors believed in only one.
In the Aztec Empire, who was responsible for keeping track of the calendars? priests
Where did the first Incas live? in the Andes Mountains
The capital city of the Inca Empire was Cuzco.
Establishing Quechua as the official language of the Inca Empire was important because it helped unify the empire.
Which Inca ruler led a great expansion of the empire and established an official religion? Pachacuti
Describe the life of the Inca lower class. Parents taught their children how to work; most lower-class children did not go to school; Inca law forced lower-class citizens to wear plain clothes.
What is a main similarity between the Aztec and Inca religions? The Aztecs and Incas worshipped many different gods.
The Inca labor tax system called the mita required Inca citizens to “pay” the government in labor instead of money.
What event took place soon before the Spaniards arrived and prompted the fall of the Inca Empire? a civil war
Who was the leader of the Spanish conquistadors who invaded the Inca Empire? Francisco Pizarro
Unlike people in the lower class of Inca society, upper-class Incas did not have to pay the labor tax (mita).
Which Inca ruler refused to convert to Christianity, prompting the Spaniards to attack? Atahualpa
Why were the mummies of former Incan kings treated with such respect? Incas believed their kings never really died.
Why was the Inca road system important? The roads connected all parts of the empire.
Machu Picchu was a royal retreat for Inca rulers.
How were Inca stories passed on to future generations? Official “memorizers” learned long poems about Inca history and passed them on orally.
Why are Inca buildings considered a major architectural achievement? Inca buildings are so tight that it is nearly impossible to fit a knife blade between stones; the stone cutting was so precise that no cement was needed; many Inca buildings are still being used.
Created by: Oak Crest Middle