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Chapter 6: Rome

Republic A type of government in which elected officials governed the state.
Patricians In the early days of the Republic, the heads of a few aristocratic families.
Plebeians Common people.
Veto To ban.
Forum Central square.
Constitution Political structure.
Senate A body of 300 members who advised elected officials, controlled public finances, and handled all foreign relations.
Consults Magistrates.
Dictator An office that gave its holder nearly unlimited power but could only be held for 6 months.
Gracchi Tiberius Gracchus and his brother Gaius Gracchus; Roman statesmen; they tried to help ex-soldiers in Rome by redistributing public land to small farmers. The Roman elite reacted violently to these actions and led mobs that killed the brothers.
Gaius Marius Roman general and politician; he eliminated property restrictions for acceptance into the army and began to accept anyone who wished to join the Roman army. He made armies into private forces that became devoted to their generals.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Roman general and politician; he became consul in 88 BC, led a civil war against Marius and his followers, emerged victorious, and became dictator.
Julius Caesar Roman general and one of the greatest military leader in history; he conquered most of Gaul and was named dictator for life in Rome. He was later murdered by a group of senators who opposed his enlarged powers.
Triumvirate Rule of three men.
Augustus First emperor of Rome; he established the Second Triumvirate with Mark Antony and Lepidus. He created the imperial system of administration, established new coinages, and encouraged trade.
Pax Romana The Roman Peace.
Villa A country home.
Circuses Where chariot races took place.
Paterfamilias The head of the family.
Augurs Paid particular respects to the priests.
Galen Greek physician; he wrote several volumes that summarized all the medical knowledge of his day.
Ptolemy One of Alexander the Great's generals, he founded a dynasty that ruled Egypt for nearly 300 years.
Aqueducts Man-made channels used to bring water to the cities.
Latin The language of Rome.
Civil law A form of law based on a written code of laws.
Christianity The teaching of Jesus of Nazareth .
Messiah A spiritual leader who, according to prophecy, would restore the ancient kingdom and bring peace to the world.
Jesus of Nazareth First-century Jewish teacher and prophet; he founded Christianity and taught about kindness and the love of God. His teachings spread through the Roman Empire and, eventually, the rest of the world.
Disciples Followers.
Apostles 12 disciples who worked to spread Jesus's message; chosen by Jesus.
Martyrs People who die for their faith and thus inspire others to believe.
Paul Apostle to the Gentiles; he worked to spread Jesus' teachings and wrote letters that explained key ideas of Christianity.
Eucharist Jesus's last supper with his disciples.
Bishop The most important official of early Christian Church.
Popes Later bishops of Rome.
Inflation Dramatic rise in prices.
Diocletian Roman emperor form 284-305; he divided the Roman Empire into eastern and western halves.
Attila King of the Huns form 434-453; he invaded parts of the Roman Empire, devastating the Balkan countries and Northern Greece when promised tribute was not paid. Plague and famine helped forestall his invasion of Italy.
Created by: MaKayla Gierke