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german and italian unification/ revolutions of latin america

risorgimento the "resurgence". the period of italian unification
congress of vienna created t prevent another napoleon from happening
conservative "anti enlightenment"
liberal "pro enlightenment"
revolutions of 1848 a wave of liberal revolutions caused by great discontent within europe, which failed because conservative leaders worked together, which they did not do before
nationalism the desire to become a nation
guiseppe mazzini the "heart" of the revolution, he wanted republicanism and democracy. he wanted to end the foreign rule of austria
count cavour the "brain" of the revolution, he united northern italy through political manipulation and alliances of convenience
guiseppe garibaldi the "sword" of the revolution, he expelled the spanish bourbons from southern italy. he had an army called the "red shirts" and allied with cavour to unify northern and southern italy
german confederacy 39 states that were joined together by the congress of vienna. it was made to replace the holy roman empire in order to border france with stronger nations
german empire created by otto von bismarck in 1871 after the franco-prussian war to unify germany
wilhelm I the prussian king that headed the german empire
otto von bismarck led the final push for unification of the german-speaking people. became known as "the iron chancellor"
franco-prussian war a war between france and prussia that was provoked by otto von bismarck. it united the german-speaking people, and they became the german empire because of it
realpolitik the political philosophy of realpolitik chooses practicality, efficiency, and efficacy over a sense or morality or idealism ("the ends justify the means")
mercantilism trade between colonies and their mother countries to keep more money for the mother countries
peninsulares the highest of the social classes in latin america. peninsulares were the people that came directly from spain to serve the spanish crown
criollos/creoles the children of the peninsulares in latin america. they were the second highest social class. since they were born in america and not in spain, they could not hold positions of power. they lived as hacienda and mine owners.
mestizos below the criollos/creoles, they were the populations of mixed ancestry. they were part european and part amerindian. since they had european blood, they still lived more comfortably than those who were fully amerindian/african
amerindians people that are native to the americas. they had a small measure of legal protection because bartolome de las casas protested against their abuse. they were still poor and peasants, though.
toussaint l'ouverture leader of the haitian revolutions. he was born a slave.
father miguel hidalgo a pro revolution priest, he led the revolution in "new spain"(modern day mexico)
simon bolivar known as "the liberator", he led revolutions in northern south america (modern day bolivia,columbia, peru, and ecuador).
monroe doctrine issued my president james monroe in 1823. the us gave official recognition of the independence of newly liberated latin american nations.
Created by: bubblewater