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Chapters 21-24

APWH Unit 5 vocab terms

primogeniture European social custom of granting inheritance to oldest male heir
zionism nationalistic movement to re-establish a homeland for Jewish people in Palestine
Voltaire philosopher whose work stressed religious liberty and judicial reforms
Montesquieu influenced the US constitution's system of checks and balances to create separation of powers
enclosures practice of fencing off common lands that forced peasants to seek work in cities
cottage industries home-based production of textiles that was eliminated in Europe with the rise of factories & machinery
utilitarianism governing philosophy promoted by John S. Mills that emphasized government action that most benefited the general will of society
tenements overcrowded, poorly constructed housing that sprang up to house the urban poor in unsanitary conditions that fostered the spread of diseases
conscription forced military service imposed upon males of military age by nations/empires to expand
extrateritoriality exemptions granted to Europeans from obligations of the laws of the Ottoman Empire and Qing China that created resentment among the native populace
Kuomintang the Chinese Nationalist Party which ruled much of China in the early 20th century following the overthrow of Sun Yat-sen's republic
prefectures political reform in Japan created districts administered by the central government
Diet the Japanese parliamentary system established during the Meiji Restoration to limit the power of the emperor
Zaibatsu family-owned business conglomerates in Japan that dominated major industries
Sun Yat-sen overthrew the Qing Dynasty and established a Republic that opposed foreign influences and tried to end the unequal distribution of wealth
Matthew Perry American naval commander who forced Japanese shoguns to open up trade with the US in 1853
The Great Game Russian-British rivalry for control of the Central Asian lands once controlled by the declining Ottoman Empire
Sepoy Mutiny revolt by British-trained Indian soldiers against their colonizers that resulted in the end of the Mughal presence and more direct rule under the British Raj system
Raj the British colonial government in South Asia that replaced the East India Company by taking orders directly from London following the Sepoy Mutiny
Indian National Congress western-educated Indian elites who used Enlightenment ideals of natural rights, sovereignty, and nationalism to fight for self rule
Corvee laborers unpaid Egyptian laborers forced to work on the Suez Canal by the French
quinine medicinal treatment for tropical diseases like malaria that allowed Europeans to explorer and colonize Africa further inland
Xhosa Cattle Killing Movement native South African attempt to drive the British out of their lands by calling on ancestral spirits to aid them
Josiah Strong US missionary who advocated for colonization of non-western civilizations using the justification of the White Man's Burden and beliefs in racial superiority
Open-Door Policy self-serving effort by the US to counter the competing spheres of influence in China and allow all western nations to trade in the country under the ruse of protecting the Chinese
Created by: wm0397