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Med Term - Ch. 5

Medical Terminology (Willis) - Chapter 5 Cardiovascular System

Four chambers of the heart right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle, left ventricle
interatrial septum partition between the right and left atria
interventricle septum partition between the right and left ventricles
Three layers of the heart endocardium, myocardium, epicardium
pericardium protective sac enclosing the heart composed of two layers with fluid between
visceral pericardium layer of the pericardium closest to the heart (visceral = pertaining to organ)
parietal pericardium outer layer of the pericardium (parietal = pertaining to wall)
pericardial cavity fluid-filled cavity between pericardial layers
endocardium membrane lining the cavities of the heart
epicardium membrane forming the outer layer of the heart
myocardium heart muscle
vasculature the collective reference to the arteries, veins, and capillaries of the body
cardiovascular system system consisting of the heart and blood vessels which work together to transport blood throughout the body
heart valves structures within the heart that open and close with the heartbeat to regulate one-way flow of blood
tricuspid valve heart valve between the right atrium and right ventricle
pulmonary semilunar valve heart valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery (luna = moon)
valves of the veins valves located at intervals within the lining of the veins, especially in the legs, which constrict with muscle action to move the blood returning to the heart
pulmonary artery delivers blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the vessels in the lungs
pulmonary circulation circulation of blood from the pulmonary artery through the vessels in the lungs and back to the heart via the pulmonary vein, providing for the exchange of gases
coronary circulation circulation of blood through the coronary blood vessels to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle tissue
pulmonary veins transports oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
mitral (bicuspid) valve heart valve between the left atrium and left ventricle (cuspis = point)
aortic valve heart valve between the left ventricle and the aorta
systemic circulation circulation of blood throughout the body via the arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins to deliver oxygen and nutrients to body tissues
coronary arteries arteries that distribute oxygenated blood throughout the entire heart
angiogram x-ray record of a blood vessel
flow of blood through the heart deoxygenated blood flows into the right ventricle of the heart via the superior and inferior vena cava, through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle, through the pulmonary semilunar valve to the pulmonary artery (to the pulmonary circulation); oxy
vasospasm involuntary contraction of a blood vessel
thrombolysis breaking down or dissolution of a clot or clots
phlebotomist someone trained to draw blood samples from the veins
stethoscope an instrument used to listen to the heart or breathing within the chest
aorta large artery that is the main trunk of the arterial system branching from the left ventricle
sphygmomanometer an instrument that measures the blood pressure (BP) based on its pressurized pulse through an atery
atrium upper right or left chamber of the heart
ventricle lower rightor left chamber of the heart
arteries vessels that carry blood from the heart to the arterioles
arterioles small vessels that receive blood from the arteries
capillaries tiny vessels that join arterioles and venules
venules small vessels that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins
veins vessels that carry blood to the heart from the venules
circulation the flow of blood through the vessels
diastole to expand; period during the cardiac cycle when blood enters the relaxed ventricles from the atria
systole to contract; period curing the cardiac cycle when the heart is in contraction and blood is ejected through the aorta and the pulmonary artery
normotension normal blood pressure ( BP of 120/80 or below)
hypotension low blood pressure
hypertension (HTN) high blood pressure
blood pressure (BP) measurement of the pressure on the walls of the arteries during contraction (systole) and relaxation (diastole)
recording blood pressure (BP) contraction phase (systole) is recorded first, followed by the relaxtion phase (diastole)
angi/o, vas/o, vascul/o vessel
aort/o aorta
arteri/o artery
ather/o fatty (lipid) paste
cardi/o heart
coron/o circle or crown
my/o muscle
pector/o or steth/o chest
sphygm/o pulse
thromb/o clot
ven/o or phleb/o vein
varic/o swollen, twisted vein
ventricul/o ventricle (belly or pouch)
cardiac conduction process that provides the electrical stimulus that is necessary to cause the heart muscle to pump blood by the continual contraction (systole) and relaxation (diastole) of myocardial cells
conduction of electrical impulses (path of) from the sinoatrial (SA) node → to the atrioventricular (AV) node → to the bundle of His → to the left and right bundle branches → to the Purkinje fibers
myocardial cell changes from electrical impulses from a resting state (polarized) → to a state of contraction (depolarized) → then back to a resting state by recharging (repolarizing)
sinoatrial (SA) node the pacemaker; highly specialized, neurological tissue impeded in the wall of the right atrium; responsible for initiating electrical conduction of the heartbeat, causing the atria to contract and firing conduction of impulses to the AV node
atrioventricular (AV) node neurological tissue in the center of the heart that receives and amplifies the conduction of impulses from the SA node to the bundle of His
bundle of His neurological fibers extending from the AV node to the right and left bundle branches that fire the impulse from the AV node to the Purkinje fibers
Purkinje fibers (Purkinje network) fibers in the ventricles that transmit impulses to the right and left ventricles, causing them to contract
polarization resting; resting state of a myocardial cell
depolarization change of a myocardial cell from a polarized (resting) state to a state of contraction (de = not; polarization = resting)
repolarization recharging of the myocardial cell from a contracted sate back to a resting state (re = again; polarization = resting)
normal sinus rhythm (NSR) regular rhythm of the heart cycle stimulated by the SA node (avg rate of 60-100 beats/minute)
NSR normal sinus rhythm
HTN hypertension
aneurysm a widening; a bulging of a wall of the heart, aorta, or artery caused by a congenital defect or acquired weakness
saccular aneurysm a sac-like bulge on on side of the vessel
fusiform aneurysm a spindle-shaped bulge of the vessel
dissecting aneurysm a split or tear of the vessel wall
angina pectoris chest pain caused by a temporary loss of oxygenated blood to the heart muscle; often caused by a narrowing of the coronary arteries (angina = to choke)
arteriosclerosis thickening, loss of elasticity, and calcification (hardening) of arterial walls
atherosclerosis a form of arteriosclerosis characterized by the buildup of fatty substances that harden within the walls of arteries
atheromatous plaque a swollen area within the lining of an artery cuased by the buildup of fat (lipids)
claudication to limp; pain in a limb (especially the calf) while walking that subsides after rest; caused by inadequate blood supply
constriction compression of a part that causes narrowing (stenosis)
diaphoresis profuse sweating (perspiration)
embolus a clot (e.g. air, fat, or a foreign object) carried in the bloodstream that obstructs the flow of blood when it lodges (embolus = a stopper)
heart murmur an abnormal sound from the heart produced by defects in the chambers or valves
infarct to stuff; a localized area of necrosis (condition of tissue death) caused by an ischemia resulting from occlusion of a blood vessel
ischemia to hold back blood; decreased blood flow to tissue caused by constriction or occlusion of a blood vessel
perfusion deficit lack of flow through a blood vessel caused by narrowing, occlusion, etc.
occlusion plugging: an obstruction or a closing off
palpitation subjective experience of pounding, skipping, or racing heartbeats (do not confuse with palpation - meaning to touch or feel)
stenosis condition of narrowing of a part
thrombus a stationary blood clot
vegetation to grow; an abnormal growth of tissue around a valve, generally as a result of infection
perfusion refers to tissues with an adequate circulation of blood
symptoms of heart disease profuse sweating (diaphoresis), chest pain (CP), shortnes of breath (SOB), heart palpitations
acute coronary syndrome (ACS) signs and symptoms indicating an active process of atherosclerotic plaque buildup or formation of a thrombus, or spasm within a coronary artery, causing a reduction or loss of blood flow to myocardial tissue; includes unstable angina and other pathologica
arryhtmia or dysrythmia any of several kinds of irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat
bradycardia slow heart rate (< 60 beats/min)
tachycardia fast heart rate (> 100 beats/min)
fibrillation chaotic, irregular contractions of the heart, as in atrial or ventricular fibrillation
premature ventricular contraction (PVC) a ventricular contraction preceding the normal impulse initiated by the SA node
bacterial endocarditis a bacterial inflammation that affects the endocardium or heart valves
cardiac tamponade compression of the heart produced by the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac, as a result from pericarditis or trauma, causing rupture of a blood vessel within the heart
tampon a plug
cardiomyopathy a general term for disease of the heart muscle, such as alcoholic cardiomyopathy (damage to the heart muscle from excessive consumption of alcohol)
congenital anamoly of the heart malformations of the heart that are present at birth (congenital = born with; anomaly = irregularity)
atrial septal defect (ASD) an opening in the septum separating the atria
ventricular septal defect (VSD) an opening in the septum separating the ventricles
coarctation of the aorta narrowing of the descending portion of the aorta, resulting in a limited flow of blood to the lower part of the body
patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) an abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta caused by a failure of the ductus ateriosus to close after birth (patent = opening)
patent opening
ASD arterial septal defect
VSD ventricular septal defect
PDA patent ductus arteriosus
congestive heart failure (CHF) or left ventricular failure failure of the left ventricle to pump an adequate amount of blood to meet the demands of the body, resulting in a bottleneck of congestion in the lungs that may extend to the veins, causing edema in lower portions of the body
CHF congestive heart failure
cor pulmonale or right ventricular failure enlargement of the right ventricule, resulting from chronic disease within the lungs, that causes congestion within the pulmonary circulation and resistance of blood flow to the lungs
cor heart
coronary artery disease (CAD) a condition affecting the arteries of the heart that reduces the flow of blood and the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium; most often caused by atherosclerosis
hypertension (HTN) persisently high blood pressure
primary or essential hypertension high blood pressure attributed to no single cause, risks include smoking, obesity, increased salt intake, hypercholesterolemia, and hereditary factors
secondary hypertension high blood pressure caused by the effects of another disease (e.g. kidney disease)
mitral valve prolapse (MVP) protrusion of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular contraction, resulting in incomplete closure and backflow of blood
myocardial infarction (MI) heart attack; death of myocardial tissure (infarction) caused by ischemia (loss of blood flow) as a result of an occlusion (plugging) of a coronary artery; usually caused by atherosclerosis; symptoms include pain in chest or upper body, shortness of breat
myocarditis inflammation of myocardium; most often cuased by bacterial or viral infection
pericarditis inflammation of the pericardium
rheumatic heart disease damage to heart muscle and heart valves by rheumatic fever (a streptococcal infection)
sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) the abrupt cessation of any cardiac output (CO), most commonly as the result of ventricular fibrillation; causes sudden death unless defibrillation is initiated immediately
deep vein thrombosis (DVT) formation of a clot in a deep vein of the body, occuring most often in the femoral and iliac veins
phlebitis inflammation of a vein
thrombophlebitis inflammation of a vein associated with a clot formation
varicose veins abnormally swollen, twisted veins with defective valves; most often seen in the legs
CO cardiac output
auscultation physical examination method of listening to sounds within the body with a stethoscope (e.g. auscultation of the chest for heart and lung sounds)
gallop abnormal heart sound that mimics the gait of a horse; related to abnormal ventricular contraction
electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) an electrical picture of the heart presented by positive and negative deflections on a graph labeled with the letters P, Q, R, S, T which correspond to events of the cardiac cycle
stress electrocardiogram (stress EZCG or EKG) electrocardiogram of the heart recorded during the induction of controlled exercise using a treadmill or ergometer (bicylce); useful in detecting heard conditions (e.g. ischemia or infarction)
Holter ambulatory monitor portable electrocardiograph worn by the patient that monitors electrical activity of the heart over 24 hours; useful in detecting periodic abnormalties
intracardiac electrophysiological study (EPS) invasive procedure involving placement of catheter-guided electrodes within the heart to evaluate and map the electrical conduction of cardiac arrhythmias; intracardiac catheter ablation may be performed at the same time to treat the arrythmia
intracardiac catheter ablation use of radiofrequency waves sent through a catheter within the heart to treat arrythmias by selectively destroying myocardial tissue at sites that generate abnormal electrical pathways
magnetic resonsance angiography (MRA) magnetic resonance imaging of the heart and blood vessels for evaluation of pathology
myocardial radionuclide perfusion scan scan of the heart made after an intravenous (IV) injection of an isotope (e.g. thallium) as it is absorbed by myocardial cells in proportion to blood flow throughout the heart; useful in evaluating coronary artery disease (CAD)
myocardial radionuclide perfusion stress scan nuclear perfusion scan of the heart that is made before and after the induction of controlled physical exercise or a pharmaceutical agent that produces the effect of exercise stress in patiens who are unable to ambulate
multiple-gated acquisition (MUGA) scan nuclear image of the beating heart in motion made as radioactive isotopes are injected into the bloodstream and traced through the heart's chambers; useful in evaluating the pumping function of the ventricles
positron-emission tomography (PET) scan of the heart use of specialized nuclear isotopes and computed tomographic techniques to produce perfusion (blood flow) images and to study the cellular metabolism of the heart; can be performed at rest or with stress
angiography process of x-ray imaging a blood vessel after injection of a contrast medium, most commonly after catheter placement
angiogram record obtained by angiography
coronary angiogram x-ray image of the blood vessels of the heart using a catheter to inject contrast
ateriogram x-ray image of a particular artery (e.g. coronary arteriogram or renal arteriogram)
aortogram x-ray image of the aorta
venogram x-ray image of a vein
cardiac catheterization introduction of a flexible, narrow tube (or catheter) through a vein or artery into the heart to withdraw samples of blood, to measure pressures within the heart chambers or vessels, and to inject a contrast media for flouoroscopic radiography and cine fi
left heart catheterization x-ray imaging of the left ventricular cavity and coronary arteries
right heart catheterization measurement of oxygen saturation and pressure readings of the right side of the heart
ventriculogram x-ray imaging of the ventricles
stroke volume (SV) measurement of the amount of blood ejected from a ventricle in one contraction
cardiac output (CO) measurement of the amount of blood ejected per minute from either ventricle of the heart
ejection fraction measurement of the volume percentage of left ventricular contents ejected with each contraction
computed tomographic angiography (CTA) specialized, noninvasive, three-dimensional computed tomographic scan of the heart and circulation of the "greater" blood vessels, such as the coronary arteries, aorta, and pulmonary veins; performed with or without contrast
echocardiography (echo) recording of sound waves through the heart to evaluate structure and motion
stress echocardiography (stress echo) echocardiogram of the heart recorded during the induction of controlled physical exercise or a pharmaceutical agent that produces the effect of exercise stress in patients who are unable to ambulate; useful in detecting conditions such as ischemia or inf
transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) echocardiogram of the heart after placement of an ultrasonic transducer at the end of an endoscope inside the esophagus
Dopplar sonography ultrasound technique used to evaluate blood flow to determine the presence of a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or carotid insufficiency, or to determine flow through the heart, chambers, valves, and so on
coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, pronounced "cabbage") grafting a portion of a blood vessel retrieved from another part of the body (e.g. a length of saphenous vein from the leg or mammary artery from the chest wall) to bypass an occluded coronary artery, restoring circulation to myocardial tissue; the tradit
anastomosis opening; the joining of two blood vessels to allow flow from one to the other
endarterectomy surgical removal of the lining of an artery to clear a blockage caused by a clot or atherosclerotic plaque buildup
valve replacement surgery to replace a diseased heart valve with an artificial valve; there are two types of artificial valves: tissue valves and mechanical valves
valvuloplasty surgical repair of a defective heart valve
procedures performed in traditional OR coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), anastomosis, endarterectomy, valve replacement, valvuloplasty
procedures performed in a catheterization lab percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), angioscopy, vascular endoscopy, atherectomy, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), intravascular stent placement
percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) interventional procedures used to treat coronary artery disease (CAD) peformed at the time of cardiac catheterization in a specialized laboratory setting (cath lab)
angioscopy or vascular endoscopy use of a flexible fiberoptic angioscope (accompanied by an irrigation system, camera, video recorder, and monitor) that is guided through a specific blood vessel to visually assess a lesion and to select the mode of therapy
atherectomy excision of atheromatous plaque from within an artery utilizing a device housed in a flexible catheter that selectively cuts away or pulverizes tissue buildup
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) a method for treating the narrowing of a coronary artery by inserting a specialized catheter with a balloon attachment, then inflating the balloon to dilate and open the narrowed portion of the vessel and restore blood flow to the myocardium; most often i
intravascular stent placement implantation of a device used to reinforce the wall of a vessel and assure it patency (openness); most often used to treat a stenosis or a dissection (a split or tear in the wall of a vessel) or to reinforce patency of a vessel after angioplasty
defibrillation termination of ventricular fibrillation by delivering an electrical stimulus to the heart; most commonly, this is done by applying the electrodes of the defibrillator externally to the chest wall, but it can also be performed internally, such as during op
difibrillator device that delivers the electrical stimulus in defibrillation
cardioversion restoration of a fast or irregular heart rate to a normal rhythm, either by pharmaceutical means or by delivery of electrical energy
implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) an implanted, battery-operated device with rate-sensing leads; the device monitors cardiac impulses and initiates an electrical stimulus as needed to stop ventricular fibrillations or tachycardia
pacemaker a device used to treat slow heart rates (brachycardia) by electrically stimulating the heart to contract; most often, it is implanted with lead wires and battery circuitry under the skin, but it can also be placed on a temporary basis externally with lead
angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor drug that suppresses the conversion of angiotensin in the blood by the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE); used in the treatment of hypertension
antianginal drug that dilates coronary arteries, restoring oxygen to the tissues to relieve the pain of angina pectoris
antiarrythmic drug that counteracts cardiac arrythmia
anticoagulant drug that prevents clotting of the blood; commonly used in the treatment of thrombophlebitis and myocardial infarction
antihypertensive drug that lowers blood pressure
beta-adrenergic blocking agents or beta-blockers agents that inhibit responses to sympathetic adrenergic nerve activity, causing a slowing of electrical conduction and heart rate and a lowering of the pressure within the walls of the vessels; used to treat angina pectoris and hypertension; the Greek sma
calcium-channel blockers agents that inhibit the entry of calcium ions into heart muscle cells, causing a slowing of the heart rate, a lessening of the deman for oxygen and nutrients, and a relaxing of the smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels to cause dilation; used to preven
cardiotonic drug that increases the force of myocardial contractions in the heart; commonly used to treat congestive heart failure (CHF)
diuretic drug that increases the secretion of urine; commonly prescribed in treating hypertension
hypolipidemic drug that reduces serum fat and cholesterol
thrombolytic agents drug used to dissolve thrombi (blood clots) (e.g. streptokinase or tissue plasminogen activator[TPA or tPA]); used in acute management of myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke; commonly called "clot busters"
vasoconstrictor drug that causes a narrowing of the blood vessels, thereby decreasing blood flow
vasodilator drug that cuases dilation of the blood vessels, thereby increasing blood flow
MUGA multiple-gated acquisition
PET positron-emission tomography
SV stroke volume
bruit unusual sound that blood makes when it rushes past an obstruction (called turbulent flow) in an artery when the sound is auscultated with the bell portion of a stethoscope
Created by: esbnlo