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Ancient Greece&Rome

9WorldHistory - Ancient Greece & Ancient Rome

QuestionAnswer
What percentage of Greece is mountains? 80%
Where is the highest peak in Greece? Mt. Olympus
How many miles of coastline does Greece have? 8,500 miles
What seas border Greece? Aegean, Ionian, Black & Mediterranean Seas
How do we know that the Minoans influenced Greek culture? artifacts have been found
What was the first city-state? Mycenae
What important skill did Mycenaeans learn from the Minoans? extensive trade networks
Define, seafaring trade. to spread goods, culture and technology to the world
How did Mycenaeans come to control much of the Greek world? through war and trade
How did Mycenaeans keep their power? they were led by King Agamemnon
Who led the Mycenaeans in war during the Trojan war? King Agamemnon
What are 3 effects of the Dark Ages in Greece? 1. Greeks leave the mainland because its a war torn countryside 2. Iron replaces bronze which is cheaper and helps reverse food shortages. 3. Adopt the phonetician alphabet that leads the movement to read and write
Define, arete. strive for excellence, one in a struggle or contest
What is an epic poem? a long poem that tells of a hero
What are two of Homer's famous plays? The Odyssey and The Iliad
What was the purpose of epic poetry in Greece? it became the epic text for the education of generations of Greek males
Define, polis. a city-state (town, city, village)
What is the purpose of the polis? served as a people center where people met for activities
What is the purpose of the acropolis (top of the hill)? a place of refuge during attack or religious center for temples
What is the purpose of the agora (open area)? served as a place for people to assemble or as a market
Greek military systems were built on foot soldiers known as what? Hoplite
What was the name given to the battle formation used by hoplites in the Greek army? Phalanx
Strong city-states were able to spread influence and create what? Greek colonies
After the end of tyranny in Greece, what two other forms of government emerged? democracy - government by the rule of many. oligarchy - government by the rule of few
When did the Golden Age been and why was it called the Golden Age? 500 BCE to 338 BCE because of brilliant culture and disastrous war
What Greek leader ruled during the height of Athenian power? Pericles
Define, direct democracy. form of government where every male citizen participates directly in government, decision making through mass meetings
Why does Pericles say that their society is a democracy? because the power is in the hands not of a minority but of the whole people
Who is considered a citizen in Greek society during this period? everyone is a citizen
Who fought in the Persian War? Athens fought Persian ruler Darius
When was the Persian war? 490 BCE
Where was the Persian War? Mediterranean
Why was the Persian War important? because Athenians take control of entire Greek world
Who fought the Peloponnesian War? Athens and Sparta
When was the Peloponnesian War? 431 BCE
Where was the Peloponnesian War? Greece
Why was the Peloponnesian War important? because the war weakens major Greek states and discourages cooperation
Define, polytheistic. belief in many gods
What was the purpose of religion for Greeks? religion was a source of Greek drama and art
What are 3 physical characteristics valued by the Greek based on their sculptures? self-assured faces, smooth skin & muscled bodies
What are 5 eternal ideals expressed in Classical Greek architecture and art? 1. Humanity 2. Reason 3. Moderation 4. Balance 5. Harmony
How does the building characterize classical Greek architecture? it is characterized by temples, columns and marble
According to myth, who founded Rome? Romulus & Remus
What was the benefit of having a long coastline for Rome? good and manageable for trade
What groups of people moved into Roman territory in 1500 BCE? Indo-European (Latin, Greeks, Etruscans)
Define, republic. system of government where the leader was not a monarch and some citizens have the right to vote
Roman Diplomats worked well with conquered and surrounding territories
Roman Military accomplished and persistent soldiers
Roman Strategists built fortified (protected) towns as they conquered
Roman Government created political institutions to solve problems
Define, law of nations. Plebeians demanded the first written Roman code of law, adopted in 450 BCE
2 examples of laws established in Rome's 12Tables that we still use today. Law of Nations and European Law Codes
Who would be considered a patrician? wealthy landowners became Rome's ruling class
Who would be considered a Plebeian? less wealthy landowners, small farmers, craftspeople and merchants
How were patricians and plebeians different in Roman society? all men could vote but only patricians could be elected into office
Who is required to serve in the military in Rome? all citizens that own land
Roman Legion large military units of infantry
Roman Infantry foot soldiers
Roman Calvary horseback soldiers
Roman Century smaller units within legions of men
Roman Consuls (monarchy) 2 officials that controlled the government and the military; served for 1 year
Roman Senate (aristocracy) aristocratic branch of government advises, consults and creates laws for society; serve for life
Roman Assembly (democracy) elected tribunes and made laws for society; serve for life
Define, dictator. government by one person with complete control over politics
82BCE Republic ends
2nd century BCE a period of civil wars break out three men emerged as winners of the civil wars
3 reasons that brought an end of the Roman Republic 1. large gaps between rich and poor 2. small farmers cannot compete 3. army loses allegiance
What territory threatened Rome's power in the Mediterranean? Carthage
5 w's for the Punic Wars who? Carthage and Rome what? Carthage over control of territory when? 264 - 146 BCE where? Sicily
What is the result of the 1st Punic War? Roman victory in Sicily; Carthage swears revenge
Who leads Carthaginian troops in the 2nd Punic War? General Hannibal
How does Rome win the 3rd Punic War? sacks the city of Carthage
Two members went to war in 31 BCE for control of Rome? Who were they? Octavian and Antony
What are Caesar's reforms? 1. gives land to the poor 2. increases size of the Senate 3. grants citizenship to his supporters 4. introduces solar calendar
Define, philosophy. the study of fundamental nature of knowledge, reality and existence especially when considered as an academic discipline
Why do we know little about Socrates' philosophies? he never writes
Who kept written record of Socrates' life? Plato
List 3 things about Socrates' beliefs. 1. He shall never give up philosophy 2. He had a responsibility 3. He wanted to prevent false belief, influence our actions, and degrade our character
According to Plato, who would rule in a perfect society? a philosopher king
Why does Plato think we should trust reason over our senses? because he says that it alone provides us with at least the potential to contemplate the forms.
Aristotle is considered the first real what? he's also considered the first genuine scientist in history
Where did Aristotle study and who was his teacher? Athens and Plato
What was the main difference between Plato and Aristotle's thinking? he believed that true knowledge could only be achieved through reason while Aristotle favored experimentation with real objects
What are some of Alexander the Great's successes? 1. his legacy 2. extended control 3. improved economy 4. created monarchy 5. spread Greek culture
Who is Alexander the Great? he is the Macedonian king Philip II's son. He became king at the age of 20
What city did Alexander use to set an example of his dominance at the beginning of his rule? Thebes
What is the name of the Greek capital in Egypt under Alexander's reign? Alexandria
What territories did Alexander conquer by 331 BCE? Syria, Palestine and Egypt
Created by: ndmsteach