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AP Euro History CH24

From 1850 to 1900, the European public became a literate society, what countries make the most literate advances? By the 1900, about 85% of people in Britain, France, Belgium, and Netherlands, Scandinavia and Germany were literate. But Italy, Spain, Austria-Hungary and Balkans had only 30 -60% literacy, For those that could read- newspapers, magazines, and library
Prior to the 19th century compare to the 19th century, what did the intellectual elite like studying? Prior to the 19th century, it was natural philosophy but during the 19th century they transition to science and technology
Who defined the Theory of Natural Selection? Charles Darwin wrote the book "On the Origin of Species" in 1859, where he explain how species evolved thru natural selection. Darwin contradicted religious bible about Creation and question existence of God.
How Darwin viewed the Descent of Man? He believed natural selection apply to people as in to animals. He believed man's moral nature and religious ideas developed naturally in response to the need for survival of fittest.
How did philosophers view Evolutionary Ethics and Darwinism? Some philosophers like Herbert Spencer believed in competition and the "fittest wins" out and "might makes right". Thomas Huxley believed that the "struggles of nature" shows how humans should not behave, because nature show no empathy.
How were the 19th century Intellectuals feeling about ideas of the Church? They wanted proof for many of the ideas of the Church. David Strauss contended Jesus was a myth and the Bible lack historical proof. Some philosophers and writers claimed the Bible was just stories by people just like the Greek epics Homer.
How did Scientist disagree with the Bible in the timeline of the creation of the earth? Geologist like Charles Lyell claims that Geology proves the earth is very old, much older then indicated by the Bible and many earth events such as floods, mountains, and valleys were natural earth developments.
How did philosophers view the Bible? They question how a Old Testament God's cruelty and unpredictability temperament did not fit well with the idea of a tolerant God. They questioned how God would sacrifice Jesus as irrational. Niezche claims the Bible support weakness over strength.
How advances in education conflict with the ideas of the Church? As countries improved education for people, the state also required members of Church to be more educated too. Ideas that the Church had taught for many years were questioned as people got more educated, pitting faith against science.
How did the Catholic Church respond to science, philosophy, and politics? The Church counter back by declaring the Pope was infallible and was the ultimate source of truth on all matters of faith and morals. The Church centralized power under the Pope. It fought against socialism and Marxism and urged Christian principles.
How did 19th century European Intellectuals feel about Islam? There views looked down on Islam and saw as a product of a particular culture, incapable of the openness to new idea like Christian Church. They blame Islam for many problems such as close attitudes, mistreating of women, and condoning slavery.
How did Islam react, in attempt to change with the times? The Salafi movement was to reconcile Islam with the modern world but became a Muslim movement to oppose Western ideas and influences. Instead of more openness, they went toward a more strict reading of the Quran and made it harder to modernize Islam.
How did Science affect 19th century Intellectuals and their ideas? With new ideas and new discoveries, 19th century Intellectuals were faced with keeping the old ideas or coming up with new ideas to reconcile new discoveries of Science. The world was more than matters of faith and now Science could test & prove new ideas
Since Isaac Newton, the world was believed to be understood, What were some of the big science theories and discoveries changed those belief? In 1895 Roentgen discovered x-rays which seem to look through solid objects. Max Planck pioneer the idea of Quantum theory. Albert Einstein pioneer his ideas of Relativity and nature of Time-Space. Heisenberg pioneer the Uncertainty principle about atoms
How did Science and the 2nd Industrial revolution changed how writer view the world? The world was seem with more scientific objectivity, people and event and stories were shown with more brutality and less romanticism. People were portrayed as creatures of materialistic determinism and passion. People were cruel and less empathetic.
Who were some important realism and naturalism writers? Charles Dickens wrote about the cruel world of industrial life. Writers like Ibsen and George Shaw wrote stories about the sufferings and lives of people dealing with life of this age.
Who were some important modernism writers? Virginia Woolf wrote stories about people in an uncertain 19th century society trying to find their way. Marcel Proust wrote of stories from concept of "Stream of Consciousness"
How did modern art changed? Artist went to Impressionism, depicting modern life both social and leisure. They focus on middle and lower classes. They experimented with light and color to create new visual art.
Who were some leading Impressionist painters? Edward Manet, Claude Monet, Camille Pissaro, Pierre-­‐Auguste Renoir painted about normal Parisian life in normal social and leisure events.
How did Cubsim differ as a art form? This style is highlighted by Pablo Picasso in his unique paintings of geometric shapes and voids in their unexpected placement and presentation,
What Philosopher began to question the adequacy of rational thinking related to the human situation? Friedrich Nietzsche challenged Christianity, democracy, nationalism, rationality, science and progress. He was a forerunner of existentialism. He rejected reason for the irrational.
Who was the father of psychoanalysis? Sigmund Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treatment through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst. His ideas were a combination between rationalism and romanticism.
Nationalism in the 19th century Nationalism became a movement of mass support. It opposed Internationalism of both liberalism and socialism. It was used to replace religion as the secular religion
What was the birth of Zionism? Hostile and prejudiced against Jews had existed in Europe for a long time. Jews had dominated certain economic and financial structures in Europe. This fuel anti-Semitic hostility. Zionism was a movement to protect the Jewish movement and nation.
Who started the Zionist movement? Theodor Herzl in an attempt to fight Anti-Semitism started the Zionist movement with the goal to establish a Jewish State.
How Feminism evolved in the 19th century? Women fought for rights, they demand the right to vote. They wanted better education and greater government support. They challenge the traditional gender roles and sexual moralities.
Who was Emile Zola, what kind of writer was he? Zola wrote stories from a scientific point of view, he would observe and report the actions of the characters.
Created by: Dquong101