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7th Grade

Unit 3: Early River Civilizations

How was Ancient Egypt land divided at first? Into Upper and Lower Egypt
What are the three main time periods of Ancient Egypt? Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom
This was the part of the Nile River that divided into many branches where the land becomes marshy and wet. Nile delta
What is the name of the sea the Nile River flows into? Mediterranean Sea
The Nile River flooded this part of Ancient Egypt helping make the land fertile for farming. Lower Egypt
Why did the Egyptians build pyramids? To serve as tombs for the pharaohs
What was the system of writing based on small pictures that stood for words, ideas and sounds called? hieroglyphics
Why was Egypt referred to as the "gift of the Nile?" The Egyptians dependent on the river for survival, they settled on its banks, they used the flooding waters to irrigate the land and make it fertile, and used it for travel and trade.
What natural physical feature provided a barrier from invaders that allowed Egyptian civilization to thrive for over 3,000 years? The desert
This paper like material was made from reed plants. Papyrus
A large arc of rich or fertile farmland near the Nile, Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, and the location of the first civilization. Fertile Crescent
These huge stone sculptures were created to perhaps guard the entrance to the Nile Valley and were the head of a ruler and body of a lion. sphinx
The process Egyptians used to preserve a dead body, embalm it and wrap it in linen. mummification
This Egyptian achievement, based on astronomy, is still used today and based on 365 days. calendar
A mixture of soil and rocks that is very fertile and used for farming. silt
A way of controlling water for farming through canals, levees and dams. irrigation
Independent territories that make up a civilization; some were walled. Empire or city-state
What do you call a series of rulers from the same family or blood line? Dynasty
The three main city-states of Mesopotamia. Assyria, Sumer and Babylon
During which kingdom were most pyramids built? Old Kingdom
During the old kingdom the pharaohs were thought to be very religious because people believed they were these. Gods
The world's first system of writing consisting of wedged shaped characters and used by the Mesopotamians. cuneiform
In Ancient Egypt, these writers went to school for many years to learn hieroglyphics and recorded events and records for the pharaoh. Scribes
A flat-topped pyramid with a temple on top used by the Mesopotamians. ziggurat
Believing in many gods. Polytheistic
A set of 282 strict laws created by the Mesopotamian King Hammurabi. Hammurabi's Code
The first language of Ancient India. Sanskirt
What is the name given to a structure that ranks people by social classes? social pyramid
Who was at the top of the Egyptian social pyramid? Pharaoh
Who was a the bottom of the Egyptian social pyramid? peasants, farmers and slaves
Most people in Ancient Egypt were at what level of the social pyramid? peasants
They advisors to the pharaoh helped run the kingdom and acted as judges in the high court. Viziers
The name given to the leader of Egypt that could be a king or a queen. Pharaoh
Who was responsible for keeping the gods happy and performing rituals in Egypt? priests
These were the skilled laborers and craftsmen that made pottery, woven items, statues and jewelry. artisans
The social hierarchy of Ancient India that divided people into groups based on birth, wealth and occupation. Caste system
What were some differences between the life of the rich and the poor in Egypt? Rich led life of comfort living in two story brick homes with gardens, wearing fancy headdresses with gold & jewels. The poor had hard life working long hours in fields & on pharaoh projects, living in sun-dried brick homes and children working too.
The longest river in the world. Nile River
The pharaoh who was buried with great riches and ruled for only 9 years at a very young age. King Tut
A powerful pharaoh who was a woman that brought wealth and peace to Egypt. Hatshepsut
The top level of the Indian Caste system Brahman-priest and teachers
Going on a trip for a certain purpose like trading or conquering land. expedition
Outcasts of the Indian Caste system because they carried out miserable tasks or broke a caste system law Untouchables
During the New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, kings became known as this. Pharaoh
A religion of India that believes in many gods and one spiritual power called Brahman and the believe in reincarnation Hinduism
Some of the important things Egyptians traded for since they couldn't find it in their own land. Ivory, wood, ebony, bronze, gold
This important discovery from 1799 helped decode three different languages including Egyptian hieroglyphics. Rosetta Stone
A grain and food source in China for thousands of years. millet
Title of the rulers in Chinese dynasties started by the Qin. emperor
Chinese philosophy based on respect and peace; children should respect their elders and government should be fair. Confucianism
Chinese philosophy based on ideas of living in peace and harmony with nature. Daoism/Taoism
Chinese philosophy used during the Qin dynasty based on the belief that people are born bad and need strict laws to be controlled. Legalism
A trade network stretching from China to Europe. Silk Road
A barrier of walls made by man across China's northern border. Great Wall of China
Tortoise shells and cattle bones used by Chinese priests to answer questions about the future. oracle bones
This farming activity contributed most to the expansion of farmland in many early civilizations. irrigation
Ancient India cities were well organized and sanitary because of these two things. Urban planning (streets laid out in straight lines and right angles) and drainage systems (sewers)
This idea gave Chinese dynasties the right to rule. Mandate of Heaven
Why was the Silk Road so important? It contributed to the exchange of goods and cultural practices throughout the Eastern Hemisphere.
This early civilization has well organized cities with complex drainage systems, believed in Hinduism and used the caste system. India
This early civilization was ruled by dynasties led by emperors who claimed the Mandate of Heaven, grew Millet and traded silk. China
This early civilization ruled by pharaohs, was divided into three kingdoms throughout time, believed in the afterlife, invented the potter's wheel, and used papyrus reeds for hieroglyphics. Egypt
This early civilization had the first known city-states in walled cities, food surpluses allowed for job specialization, built ziggurats for their gods, used cuneiform writing & invented wheel Mesopotamia
What are three major landforms that barricaded Ancient China? Mountains, deserts, rivers, seas
What two rivers did the ancient Chinese dynasties exist between? Yellow (Huang He) and Yangtze
What main river did the Indus Valley civilizations depend on? Indus River
What two rivers did Mesopotamian city-states develop near? Tigris and Euphrates
This mountain range served as a barrier for both China and India civilizations. Himalayas
What were the two main centers of Ancient India civilization? Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
Describe how the ancient Chinese were barricaded by geographic features. The Himalaya mountains barricaded them to the west, there were deserts to the north and west and seas and rivers to the east and south.
Why were rivers so important to the early river civilizations? The rivers allowed farmers to water their crops and they depended on the rivers to flood each season to produce fertile soil for farming. This gave people a stable food supply.
Created by: comstockpark