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Chapter 5: Greek

Polis City-State.
Acropolis The area a Polis was built around.
Agora Marketplace.
Helots State slaves.
Hoplites Foot soldiers.
Hubris Great Pride.
Democracy A form of government run by people.
Solon Athenian statesman; he introduced the first civil democracy in Greece and created the Boule.
Tyrant A strongman who seized power by force and claimed to rule for the good of the people.
Cleisthenes Ancient Greek ruler often called the "father of democracy". He increased the size of the council that governed Athens to 500, and he reorganized Athenian tribes on a geographical rather than familial basis.
Direct Democracy Type of system, in which all people vote directly on an issue.
Archon Another elected official.
Phalanx A tight rectangular formation in which soldiers held long spears out ahead of a wall of shields.
Pericles Athenian statesman; he encouraged the spread of democracy in Athens and the growth of the city-state's power.
Socrates A Greek philosopher of Athens; his teachings style was based on asking questions. He wanted people to question their own beliefs. He was arrested and condemned to death for challenging authority.
Plato A Greek philosopher; a student of Socrates, he started a school in Athens called the Academy. In "The Republic" he describes an ideal society run by philosopher-kings.
Airstotle A Greek philosopher and student of Plato; he taught that logic was the tool for any necessary inquiry; his work later became the basics for medieval scholasticism.
Reason Clear and ordered thinking.
Logic The process of making inferences.
Lyric poetry Named after a musical instrument called the Lyre that was often played to accompany the reading of poems.
Homer A Greek poet, he wrote the epic poems the "Iliad" and the "Odyssey", which tell stories set during and after the Trojan War.
Herodotus A Greek historian; his most famous work is "The Historians", which described major events of the Persian Wars.
Thucydides Greek historian of Athens; he wrote "The History of the Peloponnesian War".
Alexander the Great King of Macedon and conqueror of much of Asia; he is considered one of the greatest generals of all time.
Hellenistic Greek-like.
Euclid Greek geometer; he created practical books on geometric forms and mathematics. His work formed the basics fro later European studies in geometry.
Eratosthenes Greek astronomer and geographer; he calculated the circumference of the globe using careful observations and simple geometry.
Archimedes Greek mathematician and inventor; he was known for his work in geometry, physics, and mechanics.
Created by: MaKayla Gierke