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Gastrointestinal

GI and Endocrine

QuestionAnswer
Gastrointestinal (GI) Drugs- treat digestive problems. Some cure and other relieve symptoms
Antacids- relieve indigestion, heartburn and sometimes heal ulcers
Antacids- 3 main elements: magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia, Phillip’s Milk of Magnesia) "laxative" calcium carbonate (Tums, Rolaids) aluminum hydroxide (Amphojel, AlternaGEL)
magnesium hydroxide milk of magnesia- causes diarrhea relieving constipation and referred to as a laxative
calcium carbonate (Tums, Rolaids)- potent and fast-acting antacid. Can cause constipation and helps strengthen bones.
aluminum hydroxide (Amphojel, AlternaGEL) - effective antacid. Can cause constipation. Commonly mixed with magnesium hydroxide (Maalox, Mylanta)
Anti-Acidity- heartburn, indigestion, GERD and even ulcers can be treated using H2 blockers and proton pump inhibitors
H2 blockers- proteins called histamines encourage acid secretion in the stomach; reduce stomach acid by blocking histamines.
H2 blockers are commonly used for: severe heartburn and duodenal ulcers
PPIs (proton pump inhibitors)- limit stomach acid by shutting down the acid pumps, specifically by blocking an enzyme in the cells themselves.
PPIs are prescribed and used to treat... several different kinds of gastric problems, they are especially effective against ulcers.
An H2 Blocker: ranitdine (Zantac) - prescription, OTC, IV for hospital
PPIs: omeprazole (Prilosec) pantoprazole (Prontonix)
Sucralfate (carafate)- it works by creating a chemical barrier around an ulcer, protecting it, much the way that a Band-Aid protects a wound
Antiemetics (antinausea)- medications that reduce the urge to vomit EX. chemo induced
An antiemetic drug: ondansetron (Zofran) - IV
An antiemetic drug: metoclopramide (Reglan) - IV, oral
Endocrine Drugs: Diabetic Medications Insulin Thyroid Hormones Sex Hormones Infertility and Hormones
Antidiabetic medication- used to treat diabetes along with diet and exercise
Type 1 diabetes- is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin; (think insulin dependent)
Type 2 diabetes (more common)- when the body becomes resistant to insulin or doesn't make enough insulin
Antidiabetic Medications (Type 2 Diabetes): rosiglitazone (Avandia) glyburide (DiaBeta/Micronase) metformin (Glucophage) glyburide/metformin (Glucovance)
rosiglitazone (Avandia)
glyburide (DiaBeta/Micronase)
metformin (Glucophage)
glyburide/metformin (Glucovance)
Rapid-acting insulin takes effect in about 5 minutes, peaks at an hour, lasts for2-4 hours (insulin lispro, insulin aspart, and insulin glulisine)
Regular or short-acting insulin takes effect within 30 minutes, peaks in 2 to 3 hours, and lasts for 3 to 6 hours (regular insulin )
Intermediate-acting insulin Takes effect 2 to 4 hours after injection, peaks at 4 to 12 hours, lasts for 12 to 18 hours (insulin NPH)
Long-acting insulin takes effect 6 to 10 hours after injection, lasts 20 to 24 hours (insulin glargine, insulin detemir)
Premixed insulin combination of 2 types of insulin, usually a rapid- or short-acting insulin and an intermediate-acting insulin
Humulin R, Novolin R (regular insulin)-short-acting insulin and is the only insulin that can be administered intravenously.
Humalog, NovoLog (FlexPen), Apidra- rapid-acting insulin
Humulin N, Novolin N intermediate-acting insulin
Lantus, Levemir long-acting insulin and more closely mimic natural insulin release than the others do.
Hypothyroidism- treated with synthetic forms of thyroid hormones in prescription form
HYPOthyroidism drugs: levothyroxine (Synthroid, Levoxyl) liothyronine (Cytomel)- more potent
Hyperthyroidism- tends to be treated with medications that decrease the amount of hormone produced by the thyroid gland
HYPERthyroidism drugs: Beta-blockers Propylthiouracil
Birth Control Pill: Ortho-Novum
Injectable Birth Control: Depo-Provera (IM injection)
Intrauterine device (IUD): Mirena (hormonal, contains progestin)(IUD) ParaGard (non hormonal, contains copper) (IUD)
Mirena (hormonal, contains progestin) (IUD)
ParaGard (non hormonal, contains copper) (IUD)
Other indications for Birth Control: Endometriosis Uterine bleeding Breast cancer Menopause symptoms
Oxytocin- hormone released during labor and immediately after a baby is born. It both distends the cervix and induces lactation
Pitocyin oxytocin
oxytocin (Pitocyin) is frequently used to both induce and augment labor
Cytotec (misoprostol)- administered directly in the vagina to ripen the cervix to help induce labor; also used for treating ulcers
Infertility Treatment Options: clomiphene (Clomid)- induce ovulation or fix irregular ovulation In vitro fertilization (IVF)
Hormones that assist in IVF: Follistim, Repronex, Pergonal, Lupron, Pregnyl (HCG)
Key Hormones: Estrogen/estradiol Progesterone Luteinizing hormone (LH) Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
Created by: wallace263