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Back Muscles

Muscles of the Back

MuscleFunctionOrigin/InsertionInnervationLayerLocation
Latissimus dorsi Extends, adducts, and medially rotates arm; raises body toward arms during climbing stairs Origin: T6 - T12 sp, Thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, lower 3-4 ribs. Insertion: Humerus thoracodorsal nerve Layer 1 fan-shaped muscle on lower back
Levator scapula elevates scapula ORIGIN: C1 - C4 transverse processes, INSERTION: medial border (superior angle) of scapula dorsal scapular and cervical nerves Layer 2 (extrinsic muscles) (blank)
Rhomboid major & minor retract scapula, rorate scapula, fix scapula to thoracic wall ORIGIN: Nuchal ligament, Spinous processes; INSERTION: medial end of spine of scapula dorsal scapular nerve Layer 2 (extrinsic muscles) Superior to Rhomboid Major between scapula and vertebrae
Serratus posterior superior elevate ribs, move ribs ORIGIN: nuchal ligament and C7 - T3 spinous processes; INSERTION: ribs 2-4 intercostal nerves Layer 3 (extrinsic muscles) Under Rhomboids
Serratus posterior inferior depress ribs ORIGIN: T11 - L2 spinous processes, INSERTION: ribs 8 -12 intercostal nerves Layer 3 (extrinsic muscles) Under lats
Splenius capitis (head) /cervicis (neck) UNILATERAL: Rotate, sidebend HEAD/NECK to same side; BILATERAL: Extension Upper 6 thoracic vertebrae to upper 4 cervical vertebrae & posterior skull dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C2-C6 Layer 4 (intrinsic muscles) (blank)
Iliocostalis Elevate/depress ribs; BILATERALLY: extend spine and head; UNILATERALLY :flex spine Longitudinal Orientation: Spans from skull to pelvis dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C4-S5 Layer 5: erector spinae (blank)
Longissimus (cervicis & capitis) Ipsilateral Rotation and laterally flex the neck Longitudinal Orientation: Longitudinal Orientation: Spans from skull to pelvis dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C1-S1 Layer 5: erector spinae (blank)
Spinalis BILATERALLY: extend spine and head; UNILATERALLY :flex spine Longitudinal Orientation: Spans from skull to pelvis dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C2-L3 Layer 5: erector spinae (blank)
Semispinalis (capitis,cervicis, thoracis) UNILATERALLY: extends and rotates to opp side; BILATERALLY: extends ORIGIN: transverse processes of C7-T12; INSERTION: sp's of thoracic and cervical vertebra dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C1-T12 layer 6 DEEPEST BACK MMS, Transverso-spinalis spans 4-6 segments
Multifidus UNILATERALLY: Rotate to opp side; BILATERALLY: stabilize w/ minimal extension ORIGIN: sacrum, transverse processes of C3-L5, INSERTION: spinous processes 2-4 vertebral levels superior to their origin dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C1-L5 layer 6 DEEPEST BACK MMS, Transverso-spinalis spans 2-4 segments, thickest in lumbar region
Rotatores UNILATERALLY: Rotate to opp side; BILATERALLY: stabilize w/ minimal extension ORIGIN: transverse processes; INSERTION: long rotatores: spines 2 vertebrae above origin; short rotatores: spines 1 vertebrae above origin dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C1-L5 layer 6 DEEPEST BACK MMS, Transverso-spinalis thoracic region best development
Interspinales stabilize w/ minimal extension ORIGIN: upper border of spinous process; INSERTION: angles of the ribs dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C1-L5 Deep muscle (blank)
Intertransversarii stabilize w/ minimal extension ORIGIN: upper border of transverse process; INSERTION: lower border of transverse process above dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C1-L5 Deep muscle (blank)
Trapezius Upper area elevates scapula,Lower area depresses and lowers shoulder,entire muscle retracts scapula ORIGIN: Occiput, nuchal ligament, C7 - T12 SP's. INSERTION: clavicle, acromion, and spine of scapula ORIGIN: Occiput, nuchal ligament, C7 - T12 SP's. INSERTION: clavicle, acromion, and spine of scapula Layer 1 Covers upper back;attaches upper limb to trunk
Erector Spinae Group Unilateral contraction = ipsilateral side bending; Bilateral contraction = extension from skull to pelvis Dorsal primary rami I LOVE SPAGHETTI muscles Illiocostalis, longissimus, spinalis
Longissimus thoracis Depress the ribs ORIGIN: Posterior iliac crest and sacrum; sp's of lumbar vertebra; INSERTION: ribs, Thoracic and Cervical transverse processes, and occiput dorsal primary rami of spinal nerves C1-S1 Layer 5: erector spinae (blank)
Created by: StudyBuddies