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APHG Language

Vocabulary for Languages

TermDefinition
Dialect Geographically distinct versions of a single language that vary from the parent form. EX. English contains numerous dialect, reflecting historical, social and geographic differences.
Indo-European Language Family The largest language family containing the largest number of individual yet related languages spoken around the world. The family is broken down into several branches and then into languages. 50% of the world speaks Indo-European languages
Language One of the oldest, diverse and most complex cultural traits on earth. The traditional of spoken sounds for communication, some have writing systems and a literary tradition as well. There are between 5,000 and 7,000 languages spoken today.
Language Dominance Linguists believe the development of alphabets and literary traditions contributed to particular languages and cultures. Written language diffuses more readily than a strictly verbal tradition.
Language extinction Occurs when a language no longer has any living speakers. Thousands of languages have become extinct. and many more are endangered.
Language families A collection of distinctively different but related languages which are all derived from a common "mother" tongue.
Language Groups A set of closely related languages that have a very recent common ancestral language from which they derive. Spanish and Italian are derived from a common latin root. Latin is extinct but the Romance languages including those above derive from Latin.
Linqua Franca An extremely simple language that combines aspects of tow or more complex languages, usually for commercial or trade purposes.
Official Language Language in which all governmental business occurs. Some countries, Canada for example, have more than one official language. The United States has a de facto official language, but not an "official" official language.
Pidgin When two peoples with different languages meet and there individual languages form a new language with characteristics of both.
Creole A pidgin language evolves to the point of being the primary language of the people who speak it, it becomes a creole. Creole languages developed in colonial settings where linguistic traditions of native and colonizers blend.
Countering Language Extinction Movements have arisen in the past couple of decades to revive endangered and extinct languages. Examples are Gaelic languages in Scotland, Ireland and Wales, as well as Hebrew in Israel, and native American languages.
Institutional Language The language used in education, work, mass media and government. May or may not be official language. The United States has an institutional language but not an official language.
Literary tradition A language that is spoken and written using a writing system. (ie alphabet)
Developing language A language that is spoken in daily use by people of all ages, from children to the elderly, it also has a literary tradition, though not widely distributed.
Vigorous language Spoken in daily us by people of all ages, but it lacks a literary tradition.
Language branch A collection of languages within a family related throug a common ancestral language that existed several thousand years ago, differences are not extensive.
Proto Language Prot languages are the root or believed ancestral languages of language families.
Nomadic Warrior Theory Linguists and anthropologists attribute the diffusion of the Proto Indo-European language by the migrations of Kurgan warriors seeking grasslands for their animals spreading east to Siberia and west to Europe.
Sedentary Farmer Theory Contrary theory to the Nomadic Warrior Theory by Colin Refrew Archaeologist who believes that the first speakers of Proto Indo-European speakers lived 2,000 before the Kurgans in eastern Turkey.
Franglais The mix of French and English
Spanglish The mix of Spanish and English
Denglish The mix of German and English
Logograms Symbols that represent words or meaningful parts of words typical of Chinese writing systems.
Dialect
Subdialect
Vocabulary
Spelling
Pronunciations
Standard language
Received Pronunciation (RP)
isogloss
Ebonics
Isolated Language
Vulgar Latin
Created by: mlwhittier