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Healthcare-Related People Contributions Over Time

Max Weber (1864-1920) Proposed organizational structure: bureaucracy
Bureaucracy Clear relationship hierarchy, rules & regs standardize behavior, hire trained specialists, eliminate subjective judgment/favoritism; plan based on position/task; generally outdated today- "rules w/o reasons"
Frederick Taylor (1856-1915) "father" of scientific management; recognized unused potential; revolutionary ideas now commonly accepted; piece-rate incentive, one best way; time&motion studies
Frank & Lillian Gilbreth (early 1900s) developed early ideas of ergonomics and work efficiency; "therbligs"-redundant motions; find single best way, innovative design studies for cardiac-limiting conditions
Henry Gantt (1861-1919) Worked for Frederick Taylor; promoted favorable psych work conditions; Gantt chart, his work fed into PERT and critical path method;Task and Bonus Plan
PERT program evaluation and review technique
Henry Fayol (1841-1925) Key mgmt functions, 14 principles org. design&admin. Planning,Organizing,Leading, Controlling; scalar chain/chain of command; Esprit de corps
Chester Barnard (1886-1961) Top Executives role; wrote Functions of the Executive(1938); objectives & essential svcs, authority&incentives, principles of communication
Mary Parker Follett (1868-1933) Contrasted to Frederick Taylor "mechanistic" view; championed relationships in organizations, systems view of business, role of empowered employees, workgroups, teamwork, creative group effort
Hawthorne Studies - Elton Mayo,others, Harvard U. (between 1927-1932) Western Electric Hawthorne Works, Chicago-studies explored fatigue and monotony effect on productivity; breaks, variable work hours, temp/lighting -human factors matter; Hawthorne Effect; Social factors
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs - lower-order needs met before higher-order needs serve as motivators
Douglas McGregor (1906-1964) Theory X and Y - X dislike work, need 2B managed; Y natural workers, potential to be responsible, creative
Peter Drucker (1909-2005) Mgmt guru, father of modern mgmt; revolutionized role of strategy - everyone's job; mission, strategy, goals, performance all related. workers are assets; MBO; customer-centered; interpersonal community.
MBO - Management by Objectives Peter Drucker - clear target objectives can be stated and measured and can detect behavior
W. Edwards Deming (1900-1993) Focus on quality, increase competitive position; 14 principles, 1940s, rejected in U.S., adopted by Japanese post WWII
Scientific management (1880-1920) Emerged late 19/early 20 century; appy scientific principles to business process; Project Mgmt; Time & Motion (Weber, Taylor, Gilbreth, Gantt)
Administrative management (1920s) compensating for SciMgmt exclusion of senior mgmt; admin mgmt was profession to be learned; conflict resolution, power sharing, incentives (Fayol, Barnard, Follett)
Humanistic management (1924) Equity of power, shift in management from Admin focus (Hawthorne Studies; Mayo, Roethlesberger)
Human Resources Management psychology enters; theories of motivation (Maslow, McGregor)
Operations Management (1941-present) post WWII, stats/quantitative methods for manufacturing, forecasting, break-even analysis, routing/supply chain,scheduling/queuing, logistics - emphasis on statistical control; data mining
Contemporary Management MBO, TQM, emphasis on excellence (Drucker, Deming)
TQM - Total Quality Management Improve MBO limits, -0- quotas; 85/15 rule -85% problems faulty systems, not staff; Deming 14 principles; manager proactive acts= > performance
BPR Business Process Reengineering radical redesign of business process to reduce costs, streamline, improve service quality; Hammer & Champy book (1993)
Peters and Waterman book, In Search of Excellence (1982) eight characteristics, popular but short-lived results; fall from excellence takeaways
Created by: Janas
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