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EHS Ch. 1 Key terms

EHS Ch.1 Key Terms 2009

Agricultural Density The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.
Arithmetic Density The total number of people divided by the total land area.
Base Line An east-west line deignated under the land ordinace of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the U.S.A.
Cartography The science of making maps
Concentration The spread of something over a given area
Connections Relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
Contagious Diffusion The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population
Cultural ecology Geographic approach that enmphasizes human-environment relationships
Cultural Landscape Fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group
Culture The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people distinct tradition
Density The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area
Diffusion The process of spread of a feature or spread of a trend from one place to another over time
Distance Decay The diminishing in importance and eventual dissapearance of a phenomenom with increasing distance from its origin
Distribution The arrangement of something over Earth's surface
Environmental Determinism Humboldt and Ritter concentrated on how the physical environment caused social development
Expansion Diffusion The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process
Formal Region The area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics
Functional Region An area organized around a node or focal point
Geographic Information System (GIS) A computer system that organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data
Global Positioning System (GPS) A system that determines the precise potion of something on Earth through a series of satelites, tracking stations, and recievers.
Globalization Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope
Greenwich Mean Time The Time in that time zone encompassing the prime meridian, or zero degree longitude
Hearth The region from which innovative ideas originate
Hierachical Diffusion The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places
International Date Line An arc that from the most part follows the 180 degree longitude although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas. This line seperates 24 hour periods.
Land Ordinance of 1785 A law that divided much of the United Sates into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers
Latitude The number system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe in measuring distance north and south of the equator (0 degrees).
Location The position of anything on Earth's surface
Longitude The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the the prime meridian (0 degrees).
Map A two - dimensional, or flat representation, of Earth's surface, or a portion of it
Mental Map An internal representation of a portion of Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located
Meridian An arc drawn on a map between the north and south poles
Parallel A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians
Pattern The geometric or regular arrangement of something in a study area
Physiological Denisity The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture
Place A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character
Polder Land created by the Dutch by draining water
Possibilism The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives
Prime Meridian The meridian, designated as 0 degrees longitude, which passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, England
Principal Meridian A North-South line designated in the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the serving and numbering of townships in the United States
Projection The system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map
Region An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features
Regional Studies An approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phenomena in a particular study area
Relocation Diffusion The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another
Remote Sensing The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satelite orbiting the planet or other long distance methods
Resource A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use
Scale Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth's surface
Section A square normally 1 mile on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided townships in the United States into 36 sections
Site The physical character of a place
Situation The location of a place relative to other places
Space The physical gap or interval between two objects
Space-time compression The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, a result of improved communications and transportation systems
Stimulus Diffusion The spread of an underlying principle even though a specific characteristic is rejected
Toponym The name given to a portion of Earth's surface
Townships A square normally 6 miles on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided much of the United States into Townships.
Transnational corporation A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where it's headquarters or shareholders are located.
Uneven Development The increasing gap in ecomomic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy
Vernacular Region An area that people believe to exist as a part of their cultural identity.
Created by: SeanJulian