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Final Review

Phleb I

functions of blood transports O2 & CO2, disburses - waste, hormones, antibodies, nutrients, regulates - body temp, pH, electrolytes, hemostatsis - stoppage of blood, platelet plugs form
name two parts of blood plasma = 90% water, 10% dissolved solutes and formed elements = RBCs and buffy coat (WBCs and platelets) - 55% =plama, 45%=formed elements
function of RBC aka erythrocyte -to transport O2 and hemoglobin which gives blood it's red color (iron & protein)
function of WBC aka leukocyte - defense - production of antibodies
function of platelet aka thrombocyte - contains thromboplastin which starts the clotting cascade
WBC differential blood test that allows for testing of each individual WBC. Granulocytes = basophils, esinophils, neutrophils. agranulocytes = monocytes, lymphocytes
erythoblast immature RBC with a nucleus
reticulocyte immature RBC with no nucleus
steps of coagulation cascade 1. platelets aggregate to form platelet plugs 2. factors activate (thromboplastin) 3. calcium binds 4. prothrombin converts to thrombin 5 fibrinogen converts to fibrin
plasma v serum both liquid portion of blood made up mostly of H2O - plasma contains clotting factors prothrombin & fibrinogen, serum does not
hemostasis "stoppage of blood" function of blood that forms blood cells to prevent bleeding and restricts fluid when blood vessels are damaged
erythropoietin hormone that is synthesized in the kidney that sends signal to produce RBCs
macrophage large eating cell that is formed from a monocyte (WBC)
diapedesis process when monocyte (WBC) becomes a macrophage - occurs when monocyte leaves capillaries and enters interstitial space
hemocytoblast undifferentiated stem cell - when cells are formed they don't have a specific function but will eventually go where they are needed
vein v artery veins takes deoxygenated blood to the heart, have thinner walls, valves, small veins are venules. Arteries take oxygenated blood away from the heart, thicker walls to handle pumping pressure from heart, have a pulse, small arteries are arterioles
quantitative v qualitative quantitative provides an actual measurement in specific units. qualitative identifies presence or absence of a substance - positive or negative
quality control v quality assurance QC - procedures that monitor processing of lab specimens. QA - inclusive term for all polices, procedures and practices- to assure that its done
EDTA additive for lavender tube - hemotology
how lymph travels through lymphatic system upward and in towards the body via kinesis. blood plasma enters interstitial space becomes interstitial fluid, moves into capillaries becomes lymph, into lymphatic vessels then enter the circulatory system via the lymphatic ducts
lipemic abnormal amount of fat in the blood - serum or plasma appears milky or cloudy
hematoma bruise - breaking of blood vessels under the skin
hemolysis - what is it? what causes it? destruction of RBCs - caused by shaking or dropping test tube or in capillary puncture, by milking the finger
hemoconcentration occurs when tourniquet is left on too long - liquid portion of blood seeps into the interstitial space so there is a higher concentration of formed elements
tourniquet placement 3-4" above the antecubital space
when would you use butterfly on small sclerosed veins, on children, on hand
what items discarded in sharps anything sharp that could puncture a red bag - needles, glass, sharp instruments, microscope slide
what items discarded in red bag anything saturated with blood, body fluid and OPIM (other potentially infectious materials)
additive in light blue tube sodium citrate - for clotting factors
average pints of blood in human 8-10 pts/ 5-6 ltrs
PST plasma separator tube - mint/light green or green and black marble - contains thixotropic gel and lithium heparin (whole plasma sample)
SST serum separator tube - gold or red and black marble - contains thixotropic gel and gel clot activator (serum sample)
what tube for STAT chemistry PST
POL physician's office laboratory - can perform waived tests
PPE personal protective equipment (standard precautions) - gloves, mask, goggles, gown, caps, etc.
lab requisition order form from Dr. requesting specific lab tests for pt
lab report report showing pt's lab results
purpose of baseline reading baseline taken when pt is in good health - used as a guide for comparison for when they are not well
reference ranges aka normal values, expected values or reference intervals. the range considered "normal" for lab tests
which tube for WBC differential EDTA - lavender
which tube for blood culture sterile - aerobic and anaerobic - SPS (sodium polysulfonate)
how to prepare for pt blood culture 1. select tubes ordered 2. betadine/chloraprep 3. order of draw
why wipe away first drop of blood for capillary puncture bc it contains tissue fluid
hematocrit? which tube? tests proportion of RBCs that make up our blood - lavender tube
average range of hematocrit of female, male, nenoate female = 36%-46%, male = 47%-60%, neonate = 44% - 64%
which tube for hemoglobin lavender - EDTA
sickle cell anemia RBCs are misformed so have less surface area for O2 and hemoglobin (iron/protein)
polycythemia production of too many RBCs in bone marrow
average range of hemoglobin of female, male, neonate female = 12-16 g/dl, male = 13-18 g/dl, neonate 15-20 g/dl
order of draw - color of tubes sterile, light blue, red, gold - red/black marble, dark green, mint/light green - green/black marble, lavender, grey
OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration - sets regulations for safe and healthy workplace
CLIA Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment - protects public by regulation all lab tests performed on human specimens
normal range of RBCs for female, male female = 4-5.5 million, male = 4.5-6 million
normal range of platelets 250,000-500,000
normal range of WBCs 4,500 - 11,000
how lymph returns to circulatory system subclavian veins via lymphatic ducts - thoracic duct on left side of body and lymphatic duct on right side
profile/panel series of test that are related by body systems
H&H hematocrit & hemoglobin
PT/PTT prothrombin time/partial thrombinplastin time - used in light blue tube for clotting factors. if using a butterfly needle need a spit/discard tube
waived test low complexity tests that are simple to perform in POL
capillary action physical process of blood being pulled into very thin tube
veins in antecubital space cephalic, median cubital, basilic
centrifuge machine that spins the specimens at a very fast rate for separation and concentration of components
NCCLS National Committee of Clinical Laboratory Standards - later became CLSI
how long does tourniquet stay on 60 seconds
why transport blood in amber tube photosensitivity
CLSI Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute - sets standards for lab procedures
anticoagulant additive used to prevent clotting
aliquot portion of specimen used for testing
venous reflux? why does it occur when blood returns back into the veins during venipuncture due to arm movement or movement of the tubing of butterfly
Created by: gcjlentz