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chapter 6-7 vocab

Apartheid Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas
Balkanization A process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities
Balkanized Describing a small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more stable states because it was inhabited by many ethnicities with with antagonisms toward each other
Blockbusting A process by which real estate agents convince white property owners to sell their houses at low prices in the anticipation that people of color will soon move into the neighborhood
Centripetal force An attitude that unifies people and enhances support for a state
Ethnicity Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions
Nationality Identity within a group of people who share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there
Race Identity within a group of people descended from a biological ancestor
Sharecropper A person who works in a field rented from a landowner and pays rent/repays loans by giving the landowner a share of the crops
Triangular slave trade A practice, primarily during the 18th century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean Islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa
Animism The belief that objects and natural events have discrete spiritual and conscious lives
Autonomous religion A religion that does not have a central authority but that shares ideas and cooperates informally
Branch A large and fundamental division within a religion
Cosmogeny A set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe
Denomination A division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations into a single legal and administrative body
Fundementalism Literal interpretation of and strict adherence to the basic principles of a religion
Hierarchical religion A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control
Pagan A follower of a polytheistic religion
Sect A relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination
Syncretic A religion that combines several traditions (ex: Chinese traditional religions)
Agnosticism Belief that nothing can be known about whether God exists.
Atheism Belief that God does not exist.
Caste The class or distinct hereditary order into which a Hindu is assigned, according to religious law.
Ethnic religion A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated.
Ghetto During the middle ages, a neighborhood in a city set up by law to be inhabited only by Jews; now used to denote a section of a city in which members of any minority group live because of social, legal, or economic pressure.
Missionary An individual who helps to diffuse a universalizing religion.
Monotheism The doctrine of or belief in the existence of only one God.
Pilgrimage A journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes.
Polytheism Belief in or worship of more than one God.
Solstice An astronomical event that happens twice each year, when the tilt of Earth's axis is most inclined toward or away from the Sun, causing the Sun's apparent position in the sky to extreme, and resulting in the shortest and longest days of the year.
Universalizing religion A religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location.
Ethnic cleansing A process in which a more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region.
Genocide The mass killing of a group of people in an attempt to eliminate the entire group from existance.
Nationalism Loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality.
Racism Belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.
Racist A person who subscribes to the beliefs of racism.
Created by: katieevans
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