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European New Ideas

TermDefinition
Liberalism Political / economic ideology stemming from the Enlightenment. Came from American and French Revolutions. Consisted of civil rights, tolerance, social / political change, gov action, and laissez faire
Improve individuals' welfares Goal of liberalism
The Gospel of Free Enterprise Book by Adam Smith about laissez faire - letting the market do what's best fit to produce demand
Manchester liberalism Extreme laissez faire where there is an excuse to exploit the weak. Describes that poor have excessive births, moral faults, etc.
Whigs Liberals who disliked social protection of the poor
Nationalism Patriotism, loyalty, devotion. A desire of independence. At first, it was positive, later there was cultural superiority, ethnocentrism, and us vs them like in the Balkans
Congress of Vienna / Vienna Settlement of 1815 This returned Europe to a conservative environment. Called Age of Metternich because wanted to return to how they were.
Conservatism Political / economic ideology to keep traditional values, ideas, and oppose change
Moderate conservatism Branch of conservatism to keep official religion and constitution, but not have a pure democracy. Gov controls economy. The majority of Europeans.
Reaction Conservatism Branch of conservatism to keep official religion, no constitution, and class distinctions (problem with diversity). Included Russia, Austria, and Prussia
Gendarme of Europe Russia's nickname because of their readiness to stop liberalism and revolutionaries
Started by middle-class liberals, workers join, revolts turn violent. national division. Causes of 1848 revolts
Different ideologies in the working class Reason for 1848 revolts failure
July Monarchy Liberal constitutional monarchy by Louis Philippe that gave citizen rights (but was still better-off for wealthy citizens)
Reform Act of 1832 Voting rights passed by liberal British Parliament (Whigs) over Conservative Party (Tories) protests
Nation State Ethnic group that exercises control over a territory. New concepts - parties, schooling, unions
Risorgimento Term for Italian unifiaction
Count Camillo Cavour Realpolitik Prime Minister of Sardinia-Piedmont. His greatest opposition against unifying Italy was Austria and the Pope Louis IX.
Cavour allies with France to defeat Austria, then take Northern peninsula Stage 1 of Italian unification
Giuseppe Garibaldi and his Red Shirts army unite Southern peninsula Stage 2 of Italian unification
Obtain Venetia and Papal states and unify in 1870. Victor Emanuel II (King of Sardinia-Piedmont) becomes Italian King Stage 3 of Italian unification
Otto von Bismark Realpolitik father of German unification and Chancellor of Prussia. Creates first socialist programs so his people don't resort to socialism
Holstein war (Danish war) Event where Denmark annexed land with German people, so Austria and Prussia defeated them to take it over
Austrian Prussian war (7 week war) After Austria and Prussia take Holstein back, Austrians abuse of German people, which leads Prussia to fight back and win the Confederation of Northern German States
Franco Prussian war Election of Leopold (related to Prussian throne) as Spanish king sparked this event. Prussia wins and unites Southern German States and Alsace-Lorraine
Alsace-Lorraine Territory that Prussia gained from France after their war
King "Kaiser" William I New leader of Germany after unification inf 1871. This unified Germany was too large and nationalistic, creating a problem with the Vienna settlement.
William II Leader of Germany in 1890 after father's death. He wanted expansion (not conservative), so Bismarck resigns
July Monarchy Nickname for Bourbon (Napoleonic) return to French throne when the gap between the rich and poor widened
Second French Republic Supported French government by Louis Napoleon
Second French Empire French government involved in Italian and German wars of unification
Third French Republic Longest lasting (1871-1945) French government that wanted revanchism, their old lan back
Paris Commune Small, socialist, short lasting French government in Paris
Were weak (had serfs), war, liberal leader, autocratic, dealt with liberal / nationalist problems Russia's issues during 18th and 19th centuries
Crimean War Russian event that showed Russian weakness in the European scene
Czar Alexander II Liberal Russian leader that installed Great Reforms to "abolish" serfdom, and son kept Russia as autocratic
Franz Joseph I Austrian and autocrat leader after Revolts of 1848. Had many ethnic divisions, so issues
Ausgleich Name for dual Empire of Austria-Hungary. This did not solve their problems.
Created by: uriel_magana