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PRMT 221 Exam 1

Chemical/Physical Pharmacy

QuestionAnswer
Physical Incompatibilites occur when 2 or more substances are mixed together and the physical properties of these chemicals change and produce a mixture unacceptable in appearance or an inaccurate dose Ex: Immiscibility (oil and water) Insolubility Liquefactaion
Chemical Incompatibilites chemicals that are unsuitable for mixing **alterations of chemical properties by reactions with other chemicals (such as drugs) **violent actions may occur when chemicals are mixed that are incompatible
Therapeutic Incompatibilities errors in the chemicals (drugs) or dosages prescribed which produce toxic effects upon administration
What is Chemistry? the science which studies the composition and changes in composition of the substances around us Ex: Inorganic and Organic
Manufactured Products preparation and promotion of commercially available products from bulk compounds for resale by pharmacies, etc.
Compounded Products made as a result of practitioners Rx order **compounding is made for a specific patient
If any part of the compound requires a change for any reason it MUST be okayed by the prescriber. Ex: cream base to an ointment base
Balance device used to weigh
Scale markings at regular intervals (units) to evaluate or measure
Capacity maximum weight that can be placed on a balance
Sensitivity smallest weigh that gives a perceptible change (indicator pointer moves)
Readability smallest weight increment that can be read on the apparatus
Precision how precise it is
Accuracy closeness of the displayed weight to the true weight of the products
Single Beam Balance stays quite accurate simplest type, easy to use like a lever - 2 pans of equal weight at each end place object in 1 pan and weights in the other until equalize use to weigh INTERMEDIATE quantities
Unequal Arm Balance often used in MD office to weigh patients move a weight along the arm usually 2 beams- 1= adjust tare; 2= for measuring suspended short distance from 1 end use in weighing LARGE quantities
Torsion Balance 2 pans on a beam supported by metal spring or ribbon material in 1 pan, weights in the other WEIGHTS ALWAYS ON THE RIGHT PRODUCTS ON THE LEFT very sensitive place on hard, flat, surface - away from drifts used to weigh SMALL QUANTITIES
Electro Balance becoming very common in pharmacies becoming more common in MD offices as well single pan attached to coil monitored by electric current used to weigh SMALL & LARGE quantities depending on weight limitations
Compound Lever Balance rarely used anymore less accurate that at single beam balance
Using the Balance protect weighing from drafts -could cause fluctuation test & calibrate ANNUALLY subject to error
5% Rule (% allowable error) x (MWQ) = max scale error general standard for weighing operations used in compounding maximum tolerable error in weighing an ingredient is 5% MWQ- minimum weigh-able quantity
5% Rule Formula % allowable error- will always be 5% (0.05) MWQ- minimum weigh-able quantity (aka smallest weight allowed) smallest amount that can be weighted on the balance Max scale error- is the sensitivity of the scale
6mg = MAX SCALE ERROR
Volumetric Measuring Graduated cylinder Conical Beaker Pipet Dropper Syringe
Graduated Cylinder measures liquids most common volumetric measuring device used in pharmacies plastic or glass common sizes 10, 25, 50, & 100ml
Conical Graduate measures liquids plastic or glass 10-30ml increments less accurate used to measure larger amounts
Beaker measures liquids, semi-solids usually glass used to measure large amounts or liquids that don't need to be accurate scale 10-25ml increments especially good to use to mix things together
Pipet measure very small amounts of liquids made of glass dropper like on one end, straw like on the other with bulb in the middle
Dropper glass or plastic calibrated for 20gtt/ml easier then pipet
Syringe when combined with needle, used to withdraw products from vials come in different sizes can be very precise in measuring small amounts
20% Rule used to select a liquid measuring device 20% x size of liquid measuring device = smallest amount that device can measure accurately Ex: 20% x 500ml = 100ml
Meniscus crescent shaped structure appearing at the surface of the liquid -concave or convex caused by surface forces between the container and the liquid
Measuring Technique 1. place container on flat surface 2. pour liquid into container from stock bottle 3. pour center of container 4. observe meniscus at eye level 5. read bottom of curve 6. decant or add prn
Capacity designated volume which the vessel will contain (TC) or deliver (TD) at a temperature indicated on the vessel
Basic Chemistry Concept Three Stages of Matter: 1. solid- definite shape/definite volume 2. liquid- definite volume, but no definite shape 3. gas- no definite volume, no definite shape
Matter anything which occupies space and has mass **it includes things that we can see and touch as well as things we cann not (air)
Physical Property can be measured or observed w/o changing the composition or identity of a substance ex: color, smell, shape
Chemical Propery reaction with other chemicals reaction to light, heat, electricity
Atoms smallest unit of matter
Elements substances that consist of only one type of atom **most of the things around us are elements
Atomic Number the number of protons each atom of an element has **number of protons = number of electrons
Atomic Mass number of protons + number of neutrons= atomic mass **atoms of a given element do not all have the same mass **most elements have two or more isotopes
Molecule at least 2 atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical forces (aka chemical bonds)
Compounds substances composed of two or more different elements
3 Types of Compounds 1. Binary- 2 different elements 2. Ternary or Tertiary- 3 different elements 3. Quaternary- 4 different elements
Units of Measure D=m/v or Density = Mass/Volume
Weight it is the force gravity exerts on an object, it is variable depending on location
Mass is the measure of the amount of matter in an object
Compounding Techniques 1. Spatulation 2. Trituration 3. Levigation 4. Geometric Dilution 5. Filtration
Spatulation to blend a small amount of powder of equal particle size or creams, use spiraling or back/forth motion, USE A SPATULA
Trituration USE A MORTAR AND PESTLE process of rubbing, grinding, or pulverizing to create fine particles
Levigation MORTAR & PESTLE or SPATULA TO REDUCE PARTICLE SIZE AND THEN USE LEVITATING AGENT add small amount to wet the powder and make a paste
Geometric Dilution COMBINE EQUAL AMOUNTS OF LIQ/CREAM/OINTMENTS/POWDERS
Filtration USE FILTER AND FILTER PAPER to filter out insoluble excipients or clear a solution of particulate matter
Evaluating Rx Dosing Quantity of drug Quantity of drug/kg of body weight Sometimes just given a quantity to dispense Other times may need to calculate
Federal Auxiliary Label #1 Controlled Substances
Three Common Pricing Methods 1-% Markup- cost of ingred + (cost of ingred x % markup )= charge for Rx 2-% Markup + min fee- cost of ingred + (cost of ingred x % markup) + min fee = Charge for Rx 3-Professional Fee- cost of ingred + professional fee (hourly rate) = Charge for Rx
DEA Drug Enforcement Administration- aids the government in administrating and enforcing the controlled substances regulation
Controlled Substances DEA DEA number Schedules I-V Rx for controlled substances Record Keeping
DEA Number all importers, exporters, manufacturers, distributors, researchers Each pharmacy has its own DEA! Unique 9 character number that is computer generated starts with A,B,M, P & first initial of last name + 7 numbers that can be check for validity
CI highest abuse potential and no accepted medical use
CII high potential for abuse; treat more stringently *must use DEA order form 222 to order CII *CII cannot have refills, must be original Rx *CII phone orders are not a valid prescription *CII are good for 6 months from original date in ND
CIII-V can be phoned in and faxed as long as it is hand written signature *can be sent electronically if pharmacy and dr are set up to do so properly *can have 5 refills or 6 months of refills max
222 Form carbon copies- 3 copies- triplicate form last page is kept in the pharmacy as a record of what was ordered and the top 2 pages are sent to the wholesaler to order *top suppliers copy stays in the supplier unit registrants records *middle copy DEA
4 Types of Chemical Reactions 1. Combination- combine together A+B --> AB 2. Decomposition- decomposing/coming apart AB --> A+B 3. Single Replacement- A+BC --> AC+B Double Replacement- AB+CD --> AD+CB
Compound Ingredients 1. Active Ingredient 2. Inactive Ingredient
Active Ingredient usually medication part
Inactive Ingredient excipients, fillers, etc - should not give a therapeutic response, should not affect the patient at all, should not give a medical response
Light Resistant Containers protect contents from the effects of light
Well Closed Containers protect contents from extraneous solids & from loss of drug under ordinary handling
Tight Container protects contents from contamination by extraneous liquids, solids, and vapors protect loss of drug protect efflorescence, deliquescence or evaporation under ordinary handling most drugs and chemicals stored like this
Hermetic Container most secure type of container impervious to air and other gasses under normal conditions
OSHA (Occupational Safety & Health Administration) ensure the safety and health of America's workers by setting and enforcing regulations and standards, providing training ex; protection against needle sticks, transmission of hep B
MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheets) should have sheet for all bulk chemicals or drug substances that are stored in the pharmacy *sheets contain info on the substance hazards, flammability
Topical Agents Local Effect- most topical preps used for local effect Systemic Effect- some used for systemic (nitropaste) Absorbed- all are absorbed somewhat systemically Skin- important to understand skin and its function
Skin largest organ of the body protects body and the other organs from the environment layers 1. Epidermis 2. Dermis 3. Sub-Q
Epidermis outermost layer thinnest layer-thin as pencil line protective barrier- continually shedding and new cells divide and move upward slightly permeable to H2O protects body from UV light -melanin contained here
Dermis middle layer intermediate thickness gel-like dense bed of vascular connective tissue -nerves -sebaceous gland -this is where itching sensation occurs
Sub-cutaneous (Sub-Q or Sub C) innermost layer contains -glands -hair follicles -adipose tissue -blood vessels drugs permeating this level- carried through blood stream to entire body input for trans-dermal delivery system sub-q injection -insulin, haparin
Created by: doeco06