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Dzendzel Greece

Geography and People

TermDefinition
Mediterranean Climate around Greece , Italy, and Turkey of Warm dry summers and mild winters; Sea between Africa and Europe and Asia
Aegean Sea Waterway between Greece and Asia Minor
Dardanelles Waterway connecting the Aegean Sea and Black Sea
Crete Large island in the southern Aegean Sea; home to the Minoans
Peloponnese Large peninsula of southern Greece; home to Sparta
Asia Minor Large peninsula connecting Asia to Greece; home to the Persians and Ionians
Athens largest and strongest Greek city-state; birthplace of Democracy
Sparta Largest city-state in land size and home of the fiercest Greek soldiers
Mycenae Oldest Greek city, home of King Agamemnon and Mycenaean People
Knossos Capital of of Crete and the Minoan civilizations; known for its palaces
Troy City that defended the Dardanelles; Place of the Trojan War
Marathon Battle of the end of the 1st Persian Invasion; Athens defended all of Greece from the Persians
Thermopylae Small pass which the Persian army took in the 2nd Persian invasion, defended by 300 Spartans and Greek forces
Plataea Final land battle where Greeks united together and Sparta and Athens worked together
Salamis Sea battle where Athens defended its people and rid the 2nd Persian invasion of ships
Persian Empire Political unit who were culturally tolerant of others, created a road system, and government bureaucracy with satraps
Homer Ancient author who wrote the epic poems of The Illiad and The Odyssey
Achilles Mythical hero who could not be harmed but by in one spot on his heel; fought and died in the Trojan War
Minoans A first civilization of Greece on the island of Crete; known for terracotta pottery and bull jumping in their religion
Mycenaen A first civilization of Greece on the Peloponnesian peninsula; war like culture with fortress cities
Sir Arthur Evans Archeologist looking to prove myths true, looking for the Minotaur and found the palace of Knossos and the Minoans
Heinrich Schliemann Archaeologist looking to prove the epic poem of The Illiad true; found the cities of Troy and Mycenae, Mask of Agamemnon
Dorians Barbarian people who moved down the Balkan Peninsula and put Greece into a Dark Age and forced those living there to move to Ionia
Ionians Greek speaking people who live on the coast of Asia Minor; revolted over Persian rule
Polis Greek meaning city; each city-state was referred to as a polis
Monarchy Rule of government by a king or queen
Oligarchy Rule of government by a few people
Tyranny Unlawful ruler of a government; usually thought of as a dictatorship
Democracy Rule of government by the people; people of Athens had a direct democracy
Greek citizen An of age male, usually land owning or of the upper class aristocracy who could participate in government; no women
Hoplite Term for a Greek soldier who could create a phalanx and was named after the type of shield they possessed, a hoplon
Trireme Ship built by Greeks which were propelled by rows of oars; Athens was particularly good at making them
Draco Tyrant of Athens who created a strict law code
Pisistratus Tyrant of Athens who took large parts of unused lands from the aristocracy and gave it to the poor
Solon Tyrant of Athens who gave more and more people citizenship by lowering the land owning standards
Cleisthenes Tyrant of Athens who created The Assembly of 400 which created laws in Athens
Lycurgus Legendary leader and founder of Sparta creating the warrior society of citizens
Cyrus The founder of the Persian Empire; known for tolerance of other cultures; started the Persian Wars
Darius I Emperor or King of Persia who expanded the empire and created a road system, bureaucracy made of satraps, and increased trade; lost the 1st Persian invasion
Xerxes King of Persia who thought he was the god of their religion, Zoroastrianism
Miltiades Athenian general who won the Battle of Marathon against the Persians
Themistocles Athenian leader who created the Delian League where city-states work together against Persia
Hellenic Culture of the Ancient Greeks across the Aegean which includes city-states, Minoan, and Mycenaen
Hellenistic Spread of Greek, Persia, Egyptian, and Indian culture
Alexander the Great Macedonian leader who conquers the known world but dies at a young age
Created by: nadzendz