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Medical Terminology/Child Health and Oncology

**active acquired immunity A form of long-term acquired immunity that protects the body against a new infection as the result of antibodies that develop naturally after an initial infection or artificially after a vaccination.
apical pulse The heart rate as heard with a stethoscope placed on the chest wall adjacent to the cardiac apex(top of the heart).
**apnea _ a-=without,not; pne/o=breathing An absence of spontaneous respiration.
axillary temperature The body temperature as recorded by a thermometer placed in the armpit. (0.5 to 1.0 degree less than oral).
**congenital Present at birth.
crackles A common abnormal respiratory sound; discontinuous bubbling noises.
**cyanosis _ cyan/o=blue, -osis=condition Bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes.
deciduous teeth Baby teeth; first set of teeth known as primary teeth.
**dentition The eruption of teeth. This occurs in a sequential pattern, with 20 primary teeth erupting between the ages of 6 to 30 months.
**development An increase in function and complexity that results through learning, maturation, and growth.
febrile Pertaining to or characterized by an elevated body temperature, such as a ____ reaction to an infectious agent.
friction rub A dry, grating sound heard with a stethoscope during auscultation.
growth An increase in the whole or any of its parts physically.
grunting Abnormal, short audible deep, hoarse sounds in exhalation that often accompany severe chest pain.
**child growth is measured by acquiring the child's weight, head circumference, length or height, and dentition.
*weight measured at every well-visit and sick-visit.
*head circumference the measurement of the greatest circumference of the head; plotted according to normal growth and development patterns for the infant's head.
*length(height) measured from crown of the head to the heel while child is in a recumbent position(lying on back with legs extended). Compared to head circumference for overall indicator of physical growth.
**hydrocephalus _ hydr/o=water, cephal/o=head A pathological condition characterized by an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid(CSF), usually under increased pressure, within the cranial vault and subsequent dilation of the ventricles. Resulting in increased head circumference.
*immunity The quality of being insusceptible to or unaffected by a particular disease or condition.
**immunization A process by which resistance to an infectious disease is induced or augmented.
infant Child in earliest stage of life = first month of life to approximately 12 months of age( able to assume erect posture).
lumbar puncture introduction of a hollow needle and stylet into the subarachnoid space of lumbar portion of the spinal canal to optain specimens of cerebrospinal fluid.
microcephalus congenital anomaly characterized by abnormal smallness of the head in relation to the rest of the body and by underdevelopment of the brain, resulting in some degree of mental retardation.
*natural immunity A usually innate and permanent form of immunity to a specific disease.
neonatologist _ne/o=new, nat/o=birth, -logist= on who studies A medical doctor who specializes in neonatology
neonatology The medical specialty concerned with the diseases and abnormalities of newborn infants.
nomogram _ nom/o=of or relating to usage, -gram=a record A graphic representation, by any of various systems, of numeric relationship.
omphalitis An inflammation of the umbilical stump, marked by redness, swelling and purulent exudate in severe cases.
**omphalocele _ omphal/o=navel, -cele=swelling or herniation Congenital herniation of intra-abdominal viscera through a defect in the abdominal wall around the umbilicus.
omphalorrhea _ -rrhea=drainage Drainage from the umbilicus(navel).
oral temperature The mean body temperature of a normal person as recorded by a clinical thermometer placed in the mouth.
**passive acquired immunity A form of acquired immunity resulting from antibodies that are transmitted naturally through the placenta to a fetus, through the colostrum to an infant, artificially by injection of antiserum for treatment or as a prophylaxis.
pediatrician A physician who specializes in pediatrics.
pediatric nurse practitioner _ pedi/a=child, -iatric=medicine, the medical profession, or physician A registered nurse with advanced study and clinical practice in pediatric nursing.
pediatrics Pertaining to preventive and primary health care and treatment of children and the study of childhood diseases.
primary teeth Baby teeth; deciduous teeth.
prodromal Pertaining to early signs or symptoms that mark the onset of a disease.
pyrexia Fever.
rectal temperature Temperature as measured in the rectum.
recumbent lying down.
retraction The displacement of tissues to expose a part or structure of the body.
stature Natural height of a person in an upright position.
stridor An abnormal, high-pitched, musical sound caused by an obstruction in the trachea or larynx.
toxoid _ tox/o=poisons, toxins; -oid=resembling A toxin that has been treated with chemicals or with heat to decrease its toxic effect, but that retains its ability to cause the production of antibodies. (vaccines have small portion of disease).
tympanic temperature _ tympan/o=eardrum The body temperature as measured electronically at the tympanic membrane.
vaccine A suspension of attenuated or killed mircroorganisms administered intradermally, intramuscularly, orally, or subcutaneously to induce active immunity to infectios disease.
vertex The top of the head; crown.
well-child visit Routine health visit in which health professionals assess the current health status of the child, the progression of growth and development, and the need for immunizations.
wheezing A breath sound, characterized by a high-pitched musical quality heard on both inspiration and expiration. Associated with asthma and chronic bronchitis.
blast/o embryonic stage of development.
**cephal/o head
**crypt/o hidden
epi- upon, over
**esophag/o esophagus
hydr/o water
hypo- under, below, beneath, less than normal
**-iatric relating to medicine, physicians, or medical treatment
micr/o small
**nat/o birth
**neo- new
**omphal/o navel
pedi/a child
pyr/o fire, heat
rose/o rose colored
tetr/a four
tympan/o eardrum
SG-Newborn birth to 1 month
SG-Infancy 1 month to 1 year
SG-Toddlerhood 1 to 3 years
SG-Preschool age 3 to 6 years
SG-School age 6 to 12 years
SG-Adolescents 12 to 18 or 21 years
Immunizations Medication administered as a vaccine; causes suspension of infectious agents or some part of them; given to establish resistance to an infectious disease.
Childhood Immunizations Hepatitis B, DTaP, Polio (IPV), MMR, Varicella, and PCV.
**Varicella-Zoster virus (chickenpox) Viral disease of sudden onset with slight fever, successive eruptions of macules, papules, and vesicles on the skin, followed by crusting over of lesions whith a granular scab; itching may be severe. Immunization: varicella vaccine.
**erythema infectiosum A viral disease characterized by a face that appears as "slapped cheeks," a fiery red rash on the cheeks. Infectious agent: human parvovirus.
**Pertussis (whooping cough) An acute upper respiratory infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Immunization: one of components of the DPT vaccine.
**Rubella (German measles; 3-day measles) Mild febrile infectious disease resembling both scarlet fever and measles; characterized by rash of macules and papules that fades, disappears in 3 days. Diff.: Koplik's spots and photophobia are not present. Immunization: MMR vaccine.
**Rubeola ("red measles," 7-day measles) Acute, highly communicable viral disease that begins as an upper respiratory disorder, followed by rash 4-5 days after onset. Diff.: diagnosis based on presence of Koplik's spots in mouth. Infectious agent: measles virus. Imminization: MMR vaccine.
**Scarlet Fever (scarlatina) An acute, contagious disease characterized by sore throat, abrupt high fever, increased pulse, strawberry tongue, and pointlike bright red rash on the body. Infectious agent: Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci.
**mumps (infectious parotitis) Acute viral disease characterized by fever, swelling, and tenderness of one or more salivary glands, usually the parotid glands. Immunization: one component of MMR vaccine.
**DPT diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (vaccine).
**Cleft lip A congenital defect in which there is an open space between nasal cavity and lip due to failure of soft tissue and bones to fuse properly during embryonic development.
*Cleft palate Failure of the hard palate to fuse, resulting in a fissure in the middle of the palate. As result newborn has difficulty feeding and breathing. Surgical intervention necessary.
**Croup Childhood disease characterized by a barking cough, stidor and laryngeal spasm. Stridor=high-pitched musical sound when breathing in.
**hyaline membrane disease Severe impairment of respiration in premature newborn; also known as respiratory distress syndrome of the premature infant(RDS).
**erythroblastosis fetalis Form of hemolytic anemia that occurs in neonates due to maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility, involving ABO grouping or Rh factors; also known as hemolytic disease of newborn(HDN).
Reye's syndrome (RISE-SIN-drohm) Syndrome marked by severe edema of brain, increased intracranial pressure, hypoglycemia, fatty infiltration, dysfunction of liver. Follows acute viral infection, occuring in children below 18, often fatal results(linked asprin use during viral illness).
**Shaken Baby Syndrome(SBS) Serious form of child abuse resulting from repetitive, violent shaking. Symptoms: irritability, vomiting, seizures, retinal hemorrhages, respiratory distress, and signs of swelling in the brain.
**spina bifida occulta Congenital defect of central nervous system in which back portion of one or more vertebrae is not closed. Dimpling over area.
**Tay-Sachs disease Congenital disorder caused by altered lipid metabolism due to an enzyme deficiency. Symptoms begin around 6 months of age.
MMR measles-mumps-rubella(vaccine)
ASQ Ages & Stages Questionnaire
DS Down syndrome
HDN hemolytic disease of the newborn
HMD hyaline membrane disease
PNP pediatric nurse practitioner
RDS respiratory distress syndrome
SBS shaken baby syndrome
SIDS sudden infant death syndrome
Tb tuberculosis
Td tetanus and diphtheria toxoid
adjuvant A substance, especially a drug, added to a prescription to assist in the action of the main ingredient.
adjuvant therapy Treatment of disease with a substance, especially a drug, that enhances the main ingredient.(i.e. chemotherapy to radiation)
**anaplasia _ana-=not,without; -plasia=formation,growth a change in the structure and orientation of cells characterized by a loss of specialization and reversion to a more primitive form.(opposite of differentiation)
antimetabolite A class of antineoplastic drugs used to treat cancer. Most effective against rapidly growing tumors.
**antineoplastic _ anti-=against, ne/o=new, plas/o=formation,development Of or pertaining to a substance, procedure, or measure that prevents the proliferation of malignant cells.
**benign noncancerous and not an immediate threat. (opposite of malignant)
**cancer a neoplasm characterized by the uncontrolled growth of anaplastic cells that tend to invade surrounding tissue.
carcinogen _ carcin/o=cancer, -gen=that which generates A substance or agent that causes the development or increases the incidence of cancer.
carcinoma A malignant neoplasm.
**carcinoma in situ(CIS) A premalignant neoplasm that has not invaded the basement membrane but shows cytologic characteristics of cancer.
chemotheropy _ chem/o=chemical reaction, -therapy=treatment The use of chemical agents to destroy cancer cells on a selective basis.
cytotoxic _ cyt/o=cell, tox/o=poisons Pertaining to being destructive to cells.
dedifferentiation anaplasia
*deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA) A large nucleic acid molecule found principally in the chromosomes of the nucleus of a cell that is the carrier of genetic information.
**differentiation a process of development in which cells become specialized and differentiated both physically and functionally from the parent cell.(opposite of anaplasia)
encapsulated Enclosed in fibrous or membranous sheaths.
fractionation in radiology, the division of the total dose of radiation into small doses administered at intervals.
infiltrative possessing the ability to invade or penetrate adjacent tissue.
invasive Characterized by a tendancy to spread, infiltrate, and intrude.
ionizing radiation High-energy X-rays that possess the ability to kill cells or retard their growth.
linear accelerator An apparatus for accelerating charged subatomic paritcles used in radiotherapy, physics research, and the production of radionuclides.
lumpectomy _ -ectomy=surgical removal Surgical removal of only the tumor and the immediate adjacent breast tissue; treatment for breast cancer at early stage.
**malignant Tending to become worse and cause death(opposite of benign).
**metastasis _ meta-=beyond, after; -stasis=stopping, controlling The process by which tumor cells spread to distant parts of the body.
mitosis A type of cell division that results in the formation of two genetically identical daughter cells.
mixed-tissue tumor A growth of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.
modality A method of application(i.e. treatment method).
morbidity An illness or an abnormal condition or quality.
mutation a change or transformation in a gene.
**neoplasm _ ne/o=new, -plasm=growth, formation Any abnormal growth of new tissue, benign or malignant.
oncogene _ onc/o=swelling, mass, or tumor; -gene=that which generates A gene in a virus that has the ability to cause a cell to become malignant.
oncogenesis _ onc/o=swelling, mass, or tumor; -genesis=production of, formation of Formation of a tumor.
*papillary of or pertaining to a papilla(nipplelike projection).
**papilloma _ papill/o=resembling a nipple, -oma=tumor A benign epithelial(tissue) neoplasm characterized by a branching or lobular tumor.
pedunculated pertaining to a structure with a stalk.
protocol written plan or description of the steps to be taken in a particular situation, such as conducting research.
radiation The emission of energy,rays, or waves.
radiocurable tumor Pertaining to the susceptibility of tumor cells to destruction by ionizing radiation.
radioresistant tumor a tumor that resists the effects of radiation.
radioresponsive tumor a tumor that reacts favorably to radiation.
radiosensitive tumor A tumor capable of being changed by or reacting to radioactive emissions such as X-rays, alpha particles, or gamma rays.
radiotherapy treatment of disease by using X-rays or gamma rays.
ralapse To exhibit again the symptoms of a disease from which a patient appears to have recovered.
**ribonucleic acid(RNA) A nucleic acid found in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells that transmits genetic instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
sarcoma _sarc/o=flesh, -oma=tumor A malignant neoplasm of the connective and supportive tissues of the body, usually first presenting as a painless swelling.
scirrhous _ scirrh/o=hard, -ous=pertaining to Pertaining to a carcinoma with a hard structure.
**sessile Attached by a base rather than by a stalk or a peduncle.
*staging The determination of distinct phases or periods in the course of a disease.
*stem cell A formative cell; cell whose daughter cell may give rise to other cell types.
tumor A new growth of tissue characterized by progressive, uncontrolled proliferation of cells.
verrucous rough;warty.
carcin/o cancer
ana- not, without
chem/o pertaining to a chemical
cry/o cold
cyst/o bladder,sac, or cyst
epi- on, upon
fibr/o pertaining to fiber
meta- beyond, after
onc/o swelling,mass,or tumor
papill/o resembling a nipple
-plasia formation or growth
-plasm living substance
radi/o radiation;also refers to radius
sarc/o of or related to the flesh
scirrh/o hard
Bx, bx biopsy
Ca cancer
CEA carcinoembryonic antigen
DES diethylstilbestrol
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
**mets metastasis
NHL non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
Pap smear a simple smear method of examining stained exfoliative cells; the Papanicolaou test.
**PSA prostate-specific antigen
**RNA ribonucleic acid
**RTx radiation therapy
TNM tumor, nodes, and metastasis (a system for staging malignant neoplastic disease)
Created by: crayzgirlme