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Chapter 21 APWH

Enlightenment & Revolution

TermDefinition
conservatism movement led by those supporting traditional values and power structures, including the monarchy and organized religion which both resisted progressivism
deism belief that a divinity set the universe in order through natural laws that could discovered by scientific inquiry, but did not intervene in human affairs
romanticism artistic movement that stressed nature and emotion and portrayed the history and culture of nations as the ideal period; worked to inspire nationalism
nationalism a feeling of intense loyalty to other who share a common language, ethnicity, or culture and a desire to organize a nation-state composed of one culture--posed a threat to empires
salons social gatherings of European intellectuals held in the homes of wealthy supporters of liberal ideas that could be shared with the public
liberals supporters of progressive change, including expanding suffrage rights, universal education, and freedom of religious expression
Estates General the 3 classes of French society: clergy, nobles, commoners that was called by Louis XVI to resolve the financial crisis
bourgeoisie the French middle class of merchants and shopkeepers that
Tennis Court Oath pledge by members of the Third Estate to establish a Republic based on a constitution that limited the king's power
Bastille french prison that symbolized the abuses of the monarchy and aristocracy; the french mob's attack on July 14, 1789 encouraged peasants to rise up and became the day of independence
primogeniture the ancient social practice in which the oldest male inherited all the property
Maroons escaped slaves who joined L'Overture's slave rebellion in the French colony of Haiti, winning independence in 1803 while France was occupied by the Napoleonic Wars
Peninsulares the highest level of Latin American castes (society0, composed of Europeans born in the old continent; they occupied all of the highest positions in govt. and were resented by their Creole children
Zionism a nationalistic movement by the Jewish people in Europe to establish a homeland in their ancestral lands in the Middle East (Palestine) to escape the persecution and discrimination; opposed by Muslim in the region
Social Contract idea proposed by Hobbes and Locke that people give up some natural rights to either a monarch or a government to protect them and guarantee certain freedoms; Locke argues they maintain the right to replace it when corrupt
Declaration of the Rights of Man a declaration of universal civil rights that ended feudalism in France by recognizing the rights to liberty, equality, and fraternity and removed all social privileges of the 1st & 2nd Estates
balance of power attempt by Conservative governments (monarchs) in Europe to quell Nationalism and prevent further revolutions by opposing any one nation's attempts to expand its power over another
philosophes 18th century writers who explored the application of reason to new concepts of social, political, and economic theories
Congress of Vienna treaty ending the Napoleonic Wars; it reestablished political boundaries, restored the monarchy in France and its territories in a movement to resist growing Nationalism and Revolution
realpolitik an understanding of the practical politics of reality that was used by men like prime minister Cavour to consolidate power and unify Italy
Dreyfus Affair incident in which a Jewish military officer in France was convicted of treason based on forged documents, revealing wide anti-Semitic sentiment, and inspiring Zionism to grow
socialism alternative economic system in which the critical means of production are owned by the govt. or workers, and where governments provide social services to their citizens using taxes on the wealthy; opposed to laissez faire capitalism
The Wealth of Nations writing of Adam Smith, who argued a radical new idea that governments should abandon Mercantilism in favor of Free Trade
laissez faire phrase coined by Adam Smith that is French for "leave alone" and argued for minimal govt. regulation or intervention in the economy
Created by: wm0397