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4: Middle ages

History Midterm

Ottomans a Turk, especially of the period of the Ottoman Empire.
Pax mongolica "Mongol Peace" is a term, which describes the effects of the conquests of the Mongol Empire on the social, cultural, and economic life of the inhabitants
Marco Polo An Italian explorer; one of the first Europeans to travel across Asia.
Mansa Musa Mansa Musa (about 1280 – about 1337) was an emperor (mansa) of the Mali Empire during the 14th century. He became emperor in 1307.
Constantinople the largest city and former capital of Turkey; rebuilt on the site of ancient Byzantium by Constantine I in the fourth century; renamed Constantinople by Constantine who made it the capital of the Byzantine Empire
Hagia Sophia a 6th century church, converted to a mosque in 1453
Feudalism the social system in medieval Europe, where the nobility held lands in exchange for military service, the peasants were obliged to live on their lord's land and give him labor, and a share of the produce, in exchange for military protection.
Inquisition a period of prolonged and intensive questioning or investigation
Pope Urban II the popes whose sermons caused the 1st crusade
Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that were for centuries central to cultural interaction through regions of the Asian continent connecting the East and West from China to the Mediterranean Sea
Nomadic living the life of a nomad; wandering
Kublai Khan Mongol emperor (1260–1294) and founder of the Mongol dynasty in China. A grandson of Genghis Khan, he conquered the Song dynasty
Epidemic a widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a community at a particular time
civil service exam are examinations implemented in various countries for recruitment and admission to the civil service
Justinian Byzantine emperor (527–565) who held the eastern frontier of his empire against the Persians and reconquered former Roman territories in Africa, Italy, and Spain
Manor a large country house with lands; the principal house of a landed estate
Crusade a medieval military expedition, one of a series made by Europeans to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries
Saladin 1 was a Muslim military and political leader who as leader led Islamic forces during the Crusades
Byzantine relating to Byzantium, the Byzantine Empire, or the Eastern Orthodox Church
Genghis Khan founder of the Mongol empire united the nomadic Mongol tribes,
Yuan Dynasty was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan
great schism The East–West Schism, between the Eastern Church and the Western Church in 1054. The Western Schism, a split within the Roman Catholic Church that lasted from 1378 to 1417.
Zheng He was a Hui court eunuch, mariner, explorer, diplomat, and fleet admiral during China's early Ming dynasty
Justinian's code the legal code of ancient Rome; codified under Justinian
Battle of Tours was fought on October 10, 732 between forces under the Frankish leader Charles Martel and a massive invading Islamic army led by Emir Abdul Rahman
reconquista English Reconquest, in medieval Spain and Portugal, a series of campaigns by Christian states to recapture territory from the Muslims
Holy Land jerusalem
Hundred Years War A war between France and England that lasted from the middle of the fourteenth century to the middle of the fifteenth. The kings of England invaded France, trying to claim the throne.
How did religious tolerance play a role in Dar al-islam? It made Muslims better and they didn't worry about cultural diffusion (religious diffusion, in particular) as much as other people, religions, and countries
How did Indian Ocean trade affect the growth of Islam? It spread into India, East Africa, and China
What educational advancements were made during the Islamic Empires? Mathematical-Algebra, scientific, and medical
What were Mongol armies like and what tactics did they use? They were a cavalry and had advanced tactics.
How did Pax mongolica affect trade between China and Europe? What trade route revitalized by the growth of the Mongol Empire? It increased trade between China and Europe. The Silk Road.
How did Mongol leaders create stability throughout their empire? How did the Mongols rule their empire? They kept the same rulers for long periods of time. As long as people followed rules, the leaders didn't bother them. But, if someone broke a rule, just about everyone was killed.
What caused the Black Death? What did people think caused Black Death? Fleas on rats on ships. People thought it was one of two things... 1) Jews were poisoning wells 2) It was God's punishment
How did the Black Death spread? Through trade routes. It started the end of feudalism
How did the Black Death affect feudalism? How did the Black Death affect the Way serfs worked and how they were paid? It started the end of feudalism. Because there were less serfs, there was a higher demand for them. Because of that need, wages were increased.
When did the Black Death occur? 1347. Near the end of the Middle Ages.
Where was the Ming Empire? What beliefs did the Ming dynasty return to after replacing the Mongols? In China. Confucianism.
What advancements in technology did China make to improve trade? What became the symbol of Chinese trade? Ship technology, such as junks. Junks.
What good did the Chinese seek from the European through trade? Gold and guns
How did the Mongols affect the development of China? They paused it
How did the Mandate of Heaven relate to Chinese dynasties? It was how they determined which family would be in charge for the next dynasty... God approved who would rule.
How did the civil service exam create stability in Chinese Society over time? It made sure none of the political leaders were idiots
How did China react to foreign contact? Why? It isolated it self, because it was ethnocentric
How are foreign Goods perceived in China? They were devalued, because China thought their stuff was better than everyone else's
What role did Constantinople play in the Middle Ages? How was it strategically important? It was the western end of the Silk Road. It was located next to a major body of water
What was the significance of the Hagia Sophia to the Byzantine Empire? It was a show-off building for Christians. It ended up being in one of the last areas to be conquered by the Ottoman Empire.
What was the importance of Justinian's code? It was a set of laws everyone had to follow
Where was the Byzantine Empire? What was its connection to the Roman Empire? In modern day Turkey. When Europe split into two halves, the eastern half because the Byzantine Empire
What religion was practiced in the Byzantine Empire?How did Byzantine culture affect the future Eastern European countries and culture? Christianity. It acted as a buffer to prevent Islam becoming the major religion
Who ended the Byzantine Empire? How did the byzantines impact Russia? The Ottoman Empire. Russia copied a lot of Byzantine/Ottoman ideas
Why did Islam not spread into Europe during the Middle Ages? The Ottoman Empire. Russia copied a lot of Byzantine/Ottoman ideas
What was the Battle of Tours? A battle fought between forces under the Frankish leader Charles Martel and a massive invading Islamic army led by Emir Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi Abd al Rahman, near the city of Tours, France
Why did the Spanish Inquisition happen? Who was negatively impacted as a result? Catholics were mad at Muslims for being in charge for too long
What was the impact of the Christian church in medieval Europe?Why was this important to Europe after the fall of Rome? The Christian Church had the greatest source of political power in Europe. It's important, because the Church was a unifying factor
What were the living conditions like for the serfs in Western Europe? Really bad
What was feudalism based on? What are the different classes within European feudalism? Mutual obligations. Kings, nobles, knights, serfs.
How did the Crusades benefit Europeans? It exposed Europeans to wide world views, new foods, ideas, and cultures
What was the impact of Jerusalem to the Crusades? It's the place that was being fought over
How successful were the Crusades? Not successful at all
What goods were exchanged along the trans-saharan trade routes? Salt and gold
What was the significance of the hajj of Mansa Musa? He brought scholars back from Mecca, and people find out about how awesome Mansa Musa's empire is
How were gold and salt important to Africa during the Middle Ages?Where did the gold and salt trade take place? They were the main two items being traded. Sub-Saharan trade route.
What role did Islam play in Ghana and on the Swahili Coast? It was the dominating religion
What was the Bantu migrations? Where in Africa did it take place? People with similar language migrated. They started in West Africa and spread across sub-Sahara
What does Swahili mean in Arabic? What cultures came together to make up the Swahili Coast civilizations? Of the coast. Bantu and Islamic were the main two influences, and then Hindu, Chinese, and Christianity
What were the characteristics of the slave trade that existed within Africa? Where did the slaves come from? What was the role of women and children in the African slave trade? Most of the slaves that were traded weren't slaves for life. They came from East Africa. Women and children were wanted most
What were the unique characteristics of the Aztecs? Incas? Pueblos? They were all polytheistic and invented calendars
What role did men and women play in theses civilization in the Americas? Men fought, women were housewives. Pueblo women were also potential political leaders
What were the religious beliefs of the Aztecs, Incas, Pueblos? They were all polytheistic, meaning they believed in multiple gods. Most of the gods were nature gods
Which European country was responsible for the fall of civilizations in the Americas? Spain
What civilization in the America's continued to practice hunting and Gathering? Pueblos
What impact did the Mughal Empire have on India? A big impact seeing as how it was in India
What religious beliefs were blended with in the Mughal Empire? Islam and Hinduism
How did Japan react to foreign contact? Why? What major decision did the Tokugawa Shogunate make concerning foreign policy? They isolated themselves, because they were ethnocentric. He kicked out Christians and outlawed Christianity
Where was the Ottoman Empire? Which civilization did they conquer? In modern day Turkey. The Byzantine Empire
What technology did the Ottomans possess that helped them successfully expand? Gunpowder, cannons, and guns
What religion did the Ottomans practice? How did the Ottomans treat those that practice different religions in the Empire? Islam. They were religiously tolerant
Describe the Safavid Empire? from the rule of Shah Ismail. In 1501, the Safavid Shahs declared independence when the Ottomans outlawed Shi'a Islam in their territory. The Safavid Empire was strengthened by important Shi'a soldiers from the Ottoman army who had fled from persecution.
Created by: carrienb