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World History Sem. 1

This is the vocabulary for world history....Chapter 5

TermDefinition
Mycenaeans an Indo-European person who settled on the Greek mainland around 2000 B.C.
Trojan War a war, fought around 1200 B.C., in which an army led by Mycenaean kings attacked the independent trading city of Troy in Anatolia
Dorians a Greek-speaking people that, according to tradition, migrated into mainland Greece after the destruction of the Mycenaean civilization
Homer the greatest storyteller who was blind
epics a long narrative poem celebrating the deeds of legendary or traditional heroes
myths a traditional story about gods, ancestors, or heroes, told to explain the natural world or the customs and beliefs of a society
polis a Greek city-state--the fundamental political unit of ancient Greece after about 750 B.C.
acropolis a fortified hilltop in an ancient Greek city
monarchy a government in which power is in the hands of a single person
aristocracy a government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility
oligarchy a government in which power is in the hands of a few people--especially on in whivh rule is based upon wealth
tyrants in ancient Greece, powerful individuals who gained control of a city-state's government by appealing to the poor for support
democracy a government controlled by its citizens, either directly or through representatives
helots in the society of ancient Sparta, peasants bound to the land
phalanx a military formation of foot soldiers armed with spears and shields
Persian Wars a series of wars in the fifth century B.C., in which Greek city-states battled the Persian empire
direct democracy a government in which citizens rule directly rather than through representatives
classical art the art of ancient Greece and Rome, in which harmony, order, and proportion were emphasized
tragedy a serious form of drama dealing with the downfall of a heroic or noble character
comedy a humorous form of drama that often includes slapstick and satire
Peloponnesian War a war, lasting from 431 to 404 B.C., in which Athens and its allies were defeated by Sparta and its allies
philosophers thinkers who use logic and reason to investigate the nature of the universe, human society, and morality
Socrates Critic of the Sophists;encouraged Greeks to go farther and question themselves and their moral character
Plato Student of Socrates; philosopher; founded school the Academy
Aristotle Student of Plato; opened school the Lyceum; philosopher; invented method for arguing according to the rules of logic; taught Alexander
Macedonia an ancient kingdom north of Greece, whose ruler Philip II conquered Greece in 338 B.C.
Philip II father of Alexander; king of Macedonia; conquered Greece; wished to invade Persia
Alexander the Great son of Philip II; successfully invaded Persia; reached Indus Valley
Darius III Persian king
Hellenistic relating to the civilization, language, art, science, and literature of the Greek world from the reign of Alexander the Great to the late second century B.C
Alexandria named after Alexander the Great; foremost center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization; on Nile delta
Euclid highly regarded mathematician who taught in Alexandria
Archimedes gifted in both geometry and physics; inventor of many things and discoverer of mathematical laws and relationships
Colossus of Rhodes an enormous Hellenistic statue that formerly stood near the harbor of Rhodes
Created by: Samanthas1583