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Unit 4 Vocab

TermDefinition
Annexation The legal incorporation of some territory into another geo-political entity (either adjacent or non-contiguous).
Antarctica Area governed by a system known as the Antarctic Treaty System which is administered through annual meetings
Apartheid Laws (no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separated different races into different geographic areas
Balkanization A small geographic area that could not successfully be organized into one or more stable states because it is inhabited by many ethnicities with complex, long-standing antagonisms toward each other
Border landscape The complex representation of the environment around state boundaries
Border disputes When two or more states disagree about the demarcation of a political boundary
Boundary origin also known as Genetic Political Boundaries because it has to do with the evolution of boundaries
Buffer state An independent but small and weak country that is lying between two powerful countries
Capital Associated with its government, it physically encompasses the offices and meeting places of the seat of government and fixed by law
Centrifugal Forces that tend to divide a country-such as internal religious, linguistic, ethnic or ideological differences
Centripetal Forces that tend to unify a country-such as widespread commitment to a national culture, shared ideological objectives and a common faith
City-State A sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland
Colonialism An attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political economic and cultural principles in another territory
Confederation A uniting or being united in a league or alliance
Core-Periphery Spatial structure of an economic system in which underdeveloped or declining peripheral areas are defined with respect to their dependence on a dominating developed core region.
Decolonization The action of changing from colonial to independent status.
Deterritorialization Movement of economic, social and cultural processes out of the hands of states.
Devolution The transfer of certain powers from the state central government to separate political subdivisions within the state's territory
Domino Theory The political theory that if one nation comes under communist control then neighboring nations will also come under communist control.
Exclusive Economic Zone As established in the United Nations Convention on the law of the Sea, a zone of exploration extending 200 nautical miles seaward from a coastal state that has exclusive mineral and fishing rights over it
Electoral regions The different voting districts that make up local, state and national regions
Enclave A small bit of foreign territory within a state but not under its jurisdiction
Exclave A portion of a state that is separated from the main territory and surrounded by another country
Federal A political territorial system where in a central government represents the various entities within a nation-state where they have common interests; defense, foreign affairs, and yet allows these various entities to retain their own identities and laws
Forward Capital Is the area of a country, province, region or state regarded as enjoying primary status, although there are exceptions
Frontier A zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control
Geometric boundaries Political boundary defined and delimited as a straight line or an arc.
Geopolitics The influence of the habitat on political entities
Gerrymander The drawing of electoral district boundaries in an awkward pattern to enhance the voting impact of one constituency at the expense of another
Global Commons Is that which no one person or state may own or control and which is central to life
Heartland The interior of a sizable landmass, removed from maritime connections in particular the interior of the Eurasian continent
International Organization An international alliance involving many different countries
Iron Curtain Ideological and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of WWII in 1945 until the end of the Cold War
Irredentism The policy of a state wishing to incorporate within its territory inhabited by people who have ethnic or linguistic links with the country but lies within a neighboring state
Landlocked A state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea
Law of the Sea Agreement signed by 158 nations that has standardized the territorial limits for most countries at 12 nautical miles
Manifest Destiny Was the 19th century American belief that the United States was destined to expand across the North American continent, from the Atlantic seaboard to the Pacific Ocean
Median-line Principle An approach to dividing and creating boundaries at the midpoint between two places
Microstate/Ministate A state that encompasses a very small land area
Nation A culturally distinctive group of people occupying a specific territory and bound together by a sense of unity arising from shared ethnicity, belief and customs
National iconography Branch of knowledge dealing with representations of people or objects in art and design, hence the symbolism in a design
Nation-state Member of the modern state system possessing formal sovereignty and with people possessing bonds of shared cultural attributes
Physical-political boundaries Political boundary defined and delimited by a prominent physical feature in the natural landscape.
Reapportionment Process by which representative districts are switched according to population shifts, so that each district encompasses approximately the same number of people
Regionalism Political geographical group, frequently an ethnic group identification with a particular region of a state rather than with the state as a whole
Reunification The act of coming together again
Satellite State A small weak country dominated by one powerful neighbor to the extent that some or much of its independence is lost
State A centralized authority that enforces a single political, economical and legal system within its territorial boundaries
Stateless ethnic groups Ethnic groups that share certain cultural, political and/or historic qualities, such as religion, location or art, but do not share enough qualities to be recognized as a nationality or nation
Stateless nation A group that does not have a state.
Suffrage The civil right to vote
Supranationalism A method of decision-making in multi-national political communities, wherein power is transferred or delegated to an authority by governments of member states
Territorial Disputes A disagreement over the possession or control of land between two or more states
Territorial Morphology An impact on the ability of ruling governments to impose law and policy on state territory
Territoriality A behavior pattern in animals consisting of the occupation and defense of a territory
Theocracy A form of government in which a god or deity is recognized as the state's supreme civil ruler
Treaty Ports Name given to the port cities that were opened to foreign trade by the Unequal Treaties.
Unitary A sovereign state governed as one single unit in which the central government is supreme and any administrative divisions exercise only powers that the central government chooses to delegate
Rimland The maritime fringe of a country or continent in particular the western, southern and eastern edges of the Eurasian continents
Created by: abean_bean