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Crystals 5th stack

Language of Medicine...Chapter 5...7th ed.

absorption Passage of materials through the walls of the intestine into the bloodstream.
amino acids Building blocks of proteins and produced when proteins are digested.
amylase Enzyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch.
anus Opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body.
appendix Blind pouch hanging from the cecum.
bile Digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It breaks up large fat globules.
bilirubin Pigment released by the liver in bile.
bowel Intestine.
canine teeth Pointed, dog-like teeth, next to the incisors.
cuspid teeth Another name for canine teeth.
eyeteeth Another name for canine teeth.
cecum First part of the large intestine.
colon Large intestine (cecum, ascending, transverse, and descending colon, and rectum).
common bile duct Carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum.
defecation Expulsion or passage of feces from the body through the anus.
deglutition Swallowing.
dentin Major tissue composing teeth, covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root.
digestion Breakdown of complex food into simpler forms.
duodenum First part of the small intestine. (duo=2, den=10; the duodenum measures 12 inches long)
elimination Removal of waste material from the body.
emulsification Physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thus increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat.
enamel Hard, outermost layer of teeth.
enzyme A chemical that speeds up the reaction between substances. Digestive enzymes help in the breakdown of complex foods to simpler foods.
esophagus Tube connecting the throat to the stomach.
fatty acids Substances produced when fats are digested.
feces Solid wastes; stools
gallbladder Small sac under the liver; stores bile
glucose Simple sugar.
glycogen Starch; glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in liver cells.
hydrochloric acid Substance produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food.
ileum Third part of the small intestine.
incisor One of four front teeth in the dental arch.
insulin Hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas. It transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver.
jejunum Second part of the small intestine.
lipase Pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats.
liver A large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen. The liver secretes bile, stores sugar, iron and vitamins; produces blood proteins; and destroys worn-out red blood cells.
lower esophageal sphincter (LES) Ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach.
cardiac sphincter Another name for the lower esophageal sphincter.
mastication Chewing.
molar teeth Sixth, seventh, and eighth teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch.
premolar teeth Fourth and fifth teeth, before the molars.
palate Roof of the mouth.
pancreas Organ under the stomach; produces insulin and enzymes.
papillae Small elevations on the tongue. A papilla is a nipple-like elevation. (papillae=plural, papilla=singular)
parotid gland Salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear.
peristalsis Rhythm-like contractions in the tubes of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and other tubular structures. Peristalsis moves the contents through the GI tract at different rates.
pharynx Throat; the common passageway for food and air from the nose.
portal vein Large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines.
protease Enzymes that digest protein.
pulp Soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels.
pyloric sphincter Ring of muscle fibers at the distal region of the stomach, where it joins the duodenum.
rectum Last section of the colon.
rugae Ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach.
saliva Digestive juice produced by salivary glands.
salivary glands Parotid, sublingual, and submandibular glands.
sigmoid colon Lower part of the colon; shaped like an S.
sphincter Ring of muscle fibers that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening.
stomach Muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus. The stomach's parts are the fundus, body, and antrum.
triglycerides Large fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acid and one part glycerol.
uvula Soft tissue hanging from the soft palate into the mouth.
villi Microscopic projections in the walls of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream. (villi=plural, villus=singular)
an/o anus
append/o appendix
appendic/o appendix
bucc/o cheek
cec/o cecum
celi/o belly, abdomen
cheil/o lip
cholecyst/o gallbladder
choledoch/o common bile duct
col/o colon, large intestine
colon/o colon
dent/i tooth
duoden/o duodenum
enter/o intestines, usually small intestine
esophag/o esophagus
faci/o face
gastr/o stomach
gingiv/o gums
gloss/o tongue
hepat/o liver
ile/o ileum
jejun/o jejunjum
labi/o lip
lapar/o abdomen
lingu/o tongue
mandibul/o lower jaw; mandible
odont/o tooth
or/o mouth
palat/o palate
pancreat/o pancreas
peritone/o peritoneum
pharyng/o throat
proct/o anus and rectum
pylor/o pyloric sphincter
rect/o rectum
sialaden/o salivary gland
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
stomat/o mouth
amyl/o starch
bil/i gall, bile
bilirubin/o bilirubin (bile pigment)
chol/e gall, bile
chlorhydr/o hydrochloric acid
gluc/o sugar
glyc/o sugar
glycogen/o glycogen, animal starch
lip/o fat, lipid
lith/o stone
prote/o protein
sial/o saliva, salivary
steat/o fat
-ase enzyme
-chezia defecation, elimination of wastes
-iasis abnormal condition
-prandial meal
anorexia Lack of appetite.
-orexia appetite
ascites Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen.
borborygmus Rumbling or gurgling noise produced by the movement of gas, fluid, or both in the GI tract.
constipation Difficulty in passing stools (feces).
diarrhea Frequent passage of loose, watery stools.
dysphagia Difficulty in swallowing.
eructation Gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth.
flatus Gas expelled through the anus.
odynophagia Painful swallowing.
flatulence The presence of excessive gas in both the stomach and intestines.
belching The characteristic sound produced by eructation.
hematochezia Passage of bright, fresh, red blood from the rectum.
jaundice Yellow-orange coloration of the skin and other tissues caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood.
hyperbilirubinemia The presence of high bilirubin levels in the blood.
melena Black, tarry stools; feces containing digested blood.
nausea Unpleasant sensation in the stomach and a tendency to vomit.
steatorrhea Fat in the feces; frothy, foul-smelling, fecal matter.
aphthous stomatitis Inflammation of the mouth with small, painful ulcers. Commonly called canker sores.
dental caries Tooth decay.
caries decay
herpetic stomatitis Inflammation of the mouth by infection with the herpesvirus.
oral leukoplakia White plaques or patches on the mucosa of the mouth.
peridontal disease Inflammation and degeneration of gums, teeth, and surrounding bone.
pyorrhea Another name for peridontal disease.
achalasia Failure of the lower esophagus sphincter (LES) muscle to relax.
esophageal varices Swollen, varicose veins in the distal portion of the esophagus or upper part of the stomach.
gastric carcinoma Malignant tumor of the stomach.
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Solids and fluids return to the mouth from the stomach.
heartburn The burning sensation caused by the regurgitation of hydrochloric acid from the stomach to the esophagus.
hernia Protrusion of an organ or part through the muscle normally containing it.
peptic ulcer Open sore or lesion of the mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum.
anal fistula Abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus.
hiatal hernia The upper part of the stomach protrudes upward through the diaphragm.
inguinal hernia A small loop of bowel protrudes through a weak lower abdominal muscle.
anal fissure A painful narrow slit in the mucous membrane of the anus.
colonic polyposis Polyps (benign growths) protrude from the mucous membrane of the colon.
colorectal cancer Adenocarcinoma of the colon or rectum, or both.
Crohn disease Chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract.
diverticulosis Abnormal side pockets (outpouchings) in the intestinal wall.
diverticulitis When fecal matter becomes trapped in the diverticula.
diverticula The pouch-like herniations through the muscular wall of the colon.
dysentery Painful, inflammed intestines.
hemorrhoids Swollen, twisted, varicose veins in the rectal region.
ileus Failure of peristalsis with obstruction of the intestines.
intussusception Telescoping of the intestines.
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) Group of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with stress and tension.
ulcerative colitis Chronic inflammation of the colon with presence of ulcers.
volvulus Twisting of the intestine upon itself.
cholelithiasis Gallstones in the gallbladder.
cirrhosis Chronic degenerative disease of the liver.
pancreatitis Inflammation of the pancreas.
viral hepatitis Inflammation of the liver caused by a virus.
Created by: jonescd