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Industrial Revs.

TermDefinition
Enclosure / Fenced-off movement Agricultural innovation allowing crops to be grown in closed spaces
Charles "Turnip" Townshend Invented idea of crop rotation which allowed soil to replenish nutrients
Jethro Tull Seed drill that spread seeds and plants out for maximum produce
Land (availability, ports), Capital (experience, world trade, money), Labor (growing population) Preconditions for industrial revolution / Factors of production
Well located (island), raw materials, transportation, inventions. Also, no Catholic Church to ban innovation Reasons for British success in industry
Putting out / Domestic / Cottage system System of work where people worked on own time, and produced what was necessary
Factory system System of work where people work outside home, on set hours, by rules to increase production and decrease cost - textiles began this
Flying shuttle John Kay's invention
Spinning jenny James Hargreaves's invention
Water frame Richard Arkwright's invention
Spinning mule Samuel Crompton's invention
Power loom Edmund Cartwright's invention
James Watt and Matthew Boulton Invented steam power, which allowed factories to be made anywhere (not just near water-ways)
The rocket Invention with steam power used in trains and railroads
The Clermont First steamboat
Proletariat A factory worker
Tenements (back to backs) Housing spaces in urban areas - extremely compact and unsanitary. Diseases easily spread, no clean water, excrements left outside
Cholera Disease that broke out because of unsanitary water. Largest epidemic since black plague
Bourgeoisie Term for new upper middle class. Criticized b/c many were factory owners and capitalists. These criticisms led to socialist / communist reforms
Partnership / Proprietorship Business organization 1760-1860 where, to start business, one had to borrow money from bank (not public)
Corporation Business organization 1860-1920 where public invested in stock market and owned part of company, but had no say in affairs
Socialism System in which government controls means of production to spread wealth fairly equally. Gives some power to people.
Utopian socialsm Robert Owen's system (idea from Thomas Moore) where the government perfects the environment to improve people
Marxism Karl Marx / Frederick Engels's system - eventually lead to perfect socialist system. 3 steps - violent revolution, dictatorship of proletariat, pure communism.
Communist Manifesto Pamphlet Karl Marx and Frederick Engels made to spread the idea of communism
Revisionism / Democratic socialism Eduard Bernstein's system where voting and other democratic ideals are used to create socialism
Communism A system based off of Marxism where a violent revolution is needed to make a socialist government. Classless, stateless - one works to benefit all people. Russians said to have this after their revolution
Vladimir Lenin Leader of Bolsheviks. Disagrees with Marxism b/c no revolution naturally happens, so he helps overthrow gov after Czar steps down (WWI) and Russia leaves war.
Bolsheviks Russian group during its revolution that win Civil War and call themselves communists. Begin making camps and intentional famine.
Chartism Working class union and movement in the 1830s to spread awareness of labor conditions
Factory Acts of 1819 Social reforms limiting child labor and bettering working conditions
Otto von Bismark Chancellor of Germany that starts social reforms like pensions and worker's compensation
Created by: uriel_magana