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Chapter 1-Diseases

Chapter 1 - Mechanisms of Disease, Diagnosis and Treatment

Symptoms Negative characteristics or departure from normal status
Signs Abnormal objective findings
Syndrome Defined collection of signs and symptoms that characterize a disorder or condition
Pathogenesis Stages of development of a disease
Acute illness Abrupt onset of symptoms that run a brief course
Chronic illness Disease develops slowly, can be intermittent Lasts longer than 6 months Recurrent does not necessarily mean chronic
Predisposing factors Age Gender Lifestyle Environment Heredity Immunodeficiency
Endogenous Infection Inside the body
Exogenous Infection Outside the body
Modes of transmission - Infection Direct or indirect physical contact Inhalation Ingestion of contaminated food or water Inoculation by insect or animal
VRE - (Vancomycin-resistant enterococcal) is a problem in chronic care facilities
CRE - (cabapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae) Occurs among patients receiving treatment for other infections
MRSA To blame for skin and tissue infections Leading cause of surgical wound infections Excellent hygiene practices help prevent spread
Autosomal dominant The mutant phenotype is seen even if a normal gene is present on the other chromosome
Autosomal recessive Gene is insufficient to produce the mutant phenotype in the presence of a normal gene on the paired chromosome
X-linked (sex-linked) recessive Gene is located only on the X chromosome
Benign Develop slowly Can arise from any tissue Resemble the tissue of origin Rarely recur after surgical removal
Malignant Cells are variable in appearance and disorderly Have the ability to invade other tissues Metastasis makes the neoplasm more difficult to eradicate
Cancer Screening Treatment more likely to succeed if cancer is detected early Elevation of blood serum in tumor markers: Helps determine diagnosis of cancer Evaluates response to therapy Screens for disease recurrence
Stages of Cancer Stage I is best prognosis; stage IV is most advanced
TNM staging system "T" -Size and extent of primary tumor "N" - Extent of regional lymph node involvement by the tumor "M" -Number of distant metastases
Factors that can affect cancer prognosis: Age Serum concentration Time between diagnosis and treatment
Cancer Treatment Surgery Palliative surgery Chemotherapy Hormone therapy Immunotherapy
Pain Is subjective and an be physiologic or psychological Everyone describes pain in different ways Intensity of pain depends on many factors Pain measuring scales can be used Assessment of pain is noted when vitals are taken
Acute Pain Classification Blood pressure and pulse increase
Chronic Pain Classification Patients often exhibit weight loss or gain, insomnia, anorexia, or inability to continue normal activities
Intractable Pain Classification is debilitating and can cause
Transient Pain Classification is often not significant
Nociceptors a sensory receptor for painful stimuli
Created by: wallace263