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Curta AP Geo #3

Curta AP Geography Spatial Interaction and Migration

A person's activity space is primarily affected by age, mobility, opportunity
When the effort involved in travel exceeds the willingness to travel, the control in operation is critical distance
The most effective and usual means of accumulating information affecting spatial interaction is personal contact
The concept of place utility refers to the perception of opportunities and attractiveness
The gravity model states that interaction is inversely proportional to distance
The personal communication field of an individual is related to age, sex, education, type and place of employment, and income
The three flow-determining factors of spatial interaction are complementarity, transferability, and intervening opportunity.
Complementarity between areas occurs when the areas specialize in different commodities for which there is effective demand.
The interaction potential model often uses population and distance variables
Among the reasons for migrating, push factors encourage relocation away from original residence areas
People are often inclined to settle in areas of known natural hazards because specific hazards do not occur with great frequency
The migration field for any locale is usually persistent and spatially stable over time
Distance decay implies that short-distance contacts are more likely than long-distance contacts.
Barriers to the flow of information give rise to directional biases
Which of the following is a push factor? dissatisfaction with current job
The value that an individual places on each known, potential migration site is called place utility
Within the United States, directional biases favor information flows between East and West
Willingness to defend home ground is called territoriality.
Channelized migration flows imply greater than theoretically expected flows between two places
Areas that dominate a locale's in- and out-migration patterns constitute the locale's migration field
Territoriality is the spatial expression of one's mental map False
Spatial interaction is a concept applicable only to commodity movements False
In general, the space–time prism of females is more flexible than that of males False
Transferability is a statement about the cost of an interaction True
A migration field is formed by totaling the activity spaces of a number of people. False
Intervening opportunities serve to multiply the exchange flows between two distant points. False
Distance bias refers to the fact that with increased distance, transferability increases at an increasing rate False
Mass communication is essentially a one-way information flow True
An individual's zone of daily movement is known as that person's activity space
In modern American interregional moves, the decision to migrate appears to be controlled by change in life cycle, change in career cycle, and personal characteristics of mobility
In pure spatial theory, interaction decisions are based solely on distance and distance-cost considerations False
Migration decisions most realistically are viewed as the outcome of both push and pull influences. True
A potential model provides an estimate of interaction opportunities in a multinodal network. True
We form place opinions and perceptions only on the basis of personal experience. False
A movement bias displays the effect of distance decay False
Demanded personal space is a cultural and circumstantial variable. True
Activity space tends to increase with mobility and decrease with stage in the life cycle. False
People with limited awareness space are said to be confined within a space-time prism. False
The migration of settlers from the island of Java to other locations in Indonesia is an example of reluctant relocation. True
When mobility is restricted and time is limited, critical distances contract. True
Space-time convergence occurs when multiple shopping opportunities aggregate in regional malls. False
The law of retail gravitation states that the breaking point between two cities of unequal size will lie farther from the larger of the two cities. True
Differentials in wages and job opportunities between home and destination countries are a major driving force in international migration decisions True
Place perception refers to our personal awareness and beliefs about place and space. True
When a commodity is acquired from an intervening opportunity rather than from a more distant supplier, its transferability is improved. True
Distance decay and critical distance are different terms defining the same concept. False
Factors that stimulate migration are? conflict, economic conditions, political strife, cultural circumstances, environmental change, and technological advances
Migrants move on basis of? their perceptions of particular destinations; distance affects accuracy of perception.
Voluntary migrants are stimulated by? “pull” as well as “push” factors
Forced migrations result from? the imposition of power by stronger peoples over weaker ones.
Migration defined as? the long-term relocation of an individual, household, or group to a new location outside the community of origin
internal migration In the United States, African-Americans moved north during the early twentieth century The attraction of the “sunbelt” in the United States In China workers migrate from rural areas to cities of the Pacific Rim
Ravenstein’s “laws” of migration are? 1. Net migration amounts to a fraction of the gross migration between two places 2. The majority of migrants move a short distance 3. Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinations 4. Urban residents are less migratory
Push factors are? a) Likely to be more accurately perceived b) Include individual and personal considerations
Pull factors are? a) Likely to be more vague b) Many move on the basis of excessively positive images and expectations
Step migration is? Migrants may move to a near place first than move farther as they learn more about a location further away. Movement may be to a village, then a town, and finally a city. At each step new pull factors come into play
Intervening opportunity is? Migrants may find opportunity before reaching their original destination. This happens to the majority of migrants around the world. Tourists (temporary migrants) also respond to this factor. May choose a closer place to vacation because of travel costs
Voluntary migration is? All voluntary migration flows generate a return. Any voluntary migration flow represents the numbers going from the source to the destination minus those returning to the source. ex. Potato famine in Ireland or British colonial rule over Ireland
Forced migrations are? The Transatlantic Slave Trade Convicts shipped from Britain to Australia beginning in 1788. In the 1800s, thousands of Native Americans were forced onto reservations. Forced migration during Stalin's ruthless rule in the former Soviet Union
counter-migration is? Forced migration exists today in the form of counter-migration, when governments send back migrants caught entering their countries illegally
Activity space is? Daily routine, Magnitude varies in different societies, Technology has expanded daily activity spaces
What are the three types of human movement? Cyclic movement(ex. commuting, seasonal, nomadism), Periodic, and Migratory
Interregional migrations are? people moving or being moved from one geographic realm to another
Intranational refugees are? those who have abandoned their homes but not their countries
Absolute direction compass direction
Relative direction more perceptual –“Middle East” – old British term
Absolute distance physical distance between two points (scales on maps)
Relative distance distance measured in terms of cost and time
Emigrant person moving away from a country or area; out-migrant
Immigrant person moving into a particular country or area; in-migrant
Spatial interaction directly related to the populations and inversely related to the distance between them
Gravity Model In mathematical terms: Interaction is proportional to the multiplication of the two populations divided by the distance between them
Emigration occurs when a person moves from their home country
Created by: aleksa
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