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chapter 21-23 AP glo

chapter 21-23 ap global

TermDefinition
enlightenment A philosophical belief system in eighteenth-century Europe that claimed that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior and were just as scientific as the laws of physics
Benjamin Franklin American intellectual, inventor, and politician who helped negotiate French support for the American Revolution.
George Washington n Military commander of the American Revolution. He was the first elected president of the United States (1789–1799)
Joseph Brant Mohawk leader who supported the British during the American Revolution.
constitutional convention Meeting in 1787 of the elected representatives of the thirteen original states to write the Constitution of the United States
estate's general France’s traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution
jacobins Radical republicans during the French Revolution. They were led by Maximilien Robespierre from 1793 to 1794.
Maximilian Robespierre Young provincial lawyer who led the most radical phases of the French Revolution. His execution ended the Reign of Terror.
Napoleon Bonaparte General who overthrew the French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
gens de couleur r Free men and women of color in Haiti. They sought greater political rights and later supported the Haitian Revolution
François Dominique Toussaint L’Ouverture Leader of the Haitian Revolution. He freed the slaves and gained effective independence for Haiti despite military interventions by the British and French.
congress of vienna Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon I.
revolutions of 1848 Democratic and nationalist revolutions that swept across Europe. The monarchy in France was overthrown. In Germany, Austria, Italy, and Hungary the revolutions failed.
industrial revolution The transformation of the economy, the environment, and living conditions, occurring first in England in the eighteenth century, that resulted from the use of steam engines, the mechanization of manufacturing in factories
agricultural revolution The transformation of farming that resulted in the eighteenth century from the spread of new crops, improvements in cultivation techniques and livestock breeding, and the consolidation of small holdings into large farms from which tenants
mass production The manufacture of many identical products by the division of labor into many small repetitive tasks. This method was introduced into the manufacture of pottery by Josiah Wedgwood and into the spinning of cotton thread by Richard Arkwright.
Josiah wedgewood English industrialist whose pottery works were the first to produce fine-quality pottery by industrial methods.
division of labor A manufacturing technique that breaks down a craft into many simple and repetitive tasks that can be performed by unskilled workers.
mechanization The application of machinery to manufacturing and other activities. Among the first processes to be mechanized were the spinning of cotton thread and the weaving of cloth in late-eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century England.
Richard Arkwright English inventor and entrepreneur who became the wealthiest and most successful textile manufacturer of the early Industrial Revolution.
crystal palace English inventor and entrepreneur who became the wealthiest and most successful textile manufacturer of the early Industrial Revolution. He invented the water frame, a machine that
steam engine A machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion. Thomas Newcomen built the first crude but workable steam engine in 1712.
james watt Scot who invented the condenser and other improvements that made the steam engine a practical source of power for industry and transportation. The watt, an electrical measurement, is named after him.
electronic telegraph h A device for rapid, long-distance transmission of information over an electric wire. It was introduced in England and North America in the 1830s and 1840s and replaced telegraph systems that utilized visual signals such as semaphores.
laissez faire The idea that government should refrain from interfering in economic affairs. The classic exposition of laissez-faire principles is Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations (1776).
mercantilism European government policies of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries designed to promote overseas trade between a country and its colonies and accumulate precious metals by requiring colonies to trade only with their motherland
positivism A philosophy developed by the French count of Saint-Simon. Positivists believed that social and economic problems could be solved by the application of the scientific method, leading to continuous progress.
simon bolivar The most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla Mexican priest who led the first stage of the Mexican independence war in 1810. He was captured and executed in 1811
José María Morelos Mexican priest and former student of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, he led the forces fighting for Mexican independence until he was captured and executed in 1815.
confederation of 1878 Negotiated union of the formerly separate colonial governments of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. This new Dominion of Canada with a central government in Ottawa is seen as the beginning of the Canadian nation.
personification leaders Political leaders who rely on charisma and their ability to mobilize and direct the masses of citizens outside the authority of constitutions and laws
andrew jackson First president of the United States to be born in humble circumstances. He was popular among frontier residents, urban workers, and small farmers.
José Antonio Páez Venezuelan soldier who led Simón Bolívar’s cavalry force. He became a successful general in the war and built a powerful political base
benito juarez President of Mexico (1858–1872). Born in poverty in Mexico, he was educated as a lawyer and rose to become chief justice of the Mexican supreme court and then president.
tecumsah Shawnee leader who attempted to organize an Amerindian confederacy to prevent the loss of additional territory to American settlers. He became an ally of the British in War of 1812 and died in battle.
caste war A rebellion of the Maya people against the government of Mexico in 1847 that nearly returned the Yucatán to Maya rule. Some Maya rebels retreated to unoccupied territories, where they held out until 1901
abolitionists Men and women who agitated for a complete end to slavery. Abolitionist pressure ended the British transatlantic slave trade in 1808 and slavery in British colonies in 1834.
acculturation The adoption of the language, customs, values, and behaviors of host nations by immigrants
women's rights convention of 1848 An 1848 gathering of women angered by their exclusion from an international antislavery meeting. They met at Seneca Falls, New York, to discuss women’s rights.
development In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the economic process that led to industrialization, urbanization, the rise of a large and prosperous middle class, and heavy investment in education.
underdevelopment The condition experienced by economies that depend on colonial forms of production such as the export of raw materials and plantation crops with low wages and low investment in education.
Recolutions of 1848 Demo- cratic and nationalist revo- lutions that swept across Europe. The monarchy in France was overthrown. In Germany, Austria, Italy, and Hungary the revolutions failed
Congress of Vienna Meet- ing of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon I.
Gens de couleur Free men and women of color in Haiti. They sought greater political rights and later supported the Haitian Revolution.
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