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semester test

QuestionAnswer
Which continent dominated the world at the start of the 20th century? europe
What were the underlying causes of World War I? What was the spark that ignited World War I? militarism, alliances, imperialism, and nationalism the assassination of archduke francis ferdinand
Who were the Allies in World War I? france, russia, and great britain, (later japan and united states)
Who were the Central Powers in World War I? germany, austria-hungary, italy (ottoman empire)
What new technologies changed warfare in World War I? rapid fire machine guns, long-range artillery guns, poison gas, tanks, zeppelins, airplanes, u-boats
Describe the fighting on the Western Front in World War I? they fought deep trench warfare, the area between the opposing trenches was “no man's land”
What were the objectives of the United States in entering World War I? to make the world “safe for democracy” and to make WWI “the war to end all wars” (wilsons points)
When and how did World War I end? WWI ended November 11, 1918 when the new german government sought an armistice, or an agreement to end fighting
What were the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles? league of nations, territorial losses, military restrictions, and war guilt (germany took full responsibility of the war and had to pay reparations)
What were causes and results of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia? causes: tsar nicholas did little to solve russia’s problems and was a poor military leader, people living in poverty, corruption was rampant, the duma had no real power, WWI strained the country’s mismanaged resources, many people died
part 2 : results results: ended private ownership of land, gave land to peasants, gave control of factories and mines to workers, withdrew from WWI, citizens gained the right to vote, the government had an elected legislator
How did other industrialized nations respond to the abuses of the Industrial Revolution? new laws further reduced hours for women and children, sent inspectors into factories, and required that children be educated child labor reform laws called “factory laws”
What were the causes of the Great Depression? debt; overproduction; layoffs; rising interest rates; poorly regulated banks
What were the effects of the Great Depression? the crash → financial markets crash sending america into a downward spiral of layoffs, bank closings, and massive unemployment, millions would be homeless, the depression spread to nations around the world
What is fascism? an centralized, anti-democratic, authoritarian, totalitarian government that is not communist, whose policies glorify the state over the individual and are destructive of basic human rights
What factors contributed to Hitler’s rise to power in Germany? he made germany into a totalitarian state, he exploited peoples concerns, he got rid of it all other parties except for the national socialist workers party and made himself the only ruler of germany
What are the characteristics of totalitarian governments? single party, control all aspect of lives, leaders suppress all opposition
When did World War II begin? sept 1st 1939, a week after the nazi-soviet pact, german forces invaded poland and britain and france declared war on germany
When did the United States enter World War II? dec 7 1939, the united states entered after japan bombs pearl harbor
What was the Renaissance? 'rebirth' a period in european history where many of the changes experienced were inspired by a revival of the classical art and intellect of ancient greece and rome also regarded as the cultural bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history
What impact did the printing press have on Europe in the 1400s and 1500s? people are literate again, they began to read and write again and read the classics, ideas start to spread across europe spreading ideas
How did the printing press impact the Renaissance? it enabled the fast flow of information and encouraged the spread of new ideas, it was also a huge driving force behind the spread of protestantism across Europe
What did Italians feel was being “reborn” during the Renaissance? interest in humanity a new society
How did America switch to a war footing during World War II? they committed to total war, using all of their resources for the war effort
What was the Holocaust? Hitler’s “Final Solution” the systematic genocide of about six million european jews by the nazis during world war II goal was exterminating all jews in europe
Why was the Battle of Stalingrad important? it drove german troops out of the soviet union, which allowed soviet troops to advance into eastern europe toward germany
When was the Normandy Invasion of France and why was it important? on june 6, 1944 allied troops invaded france, which allowed allied troops to break through the german lines to advance toward paris
When and how did the war in the Pacific end? sept 2, 1945 marked the end of the war in the pacific through a formal peace treaty, this was after two atomic bombs were dropped on japan
How did World War II change the nature of warfare? more powerful weapons that could wipe out essentially a hole state or even country
How did the Renaissance help lead to the Protestant Reformation? it breaks europe open with new beliefs and religions
What were the causes of the Age of Exploration? religion, gold, exploration europeans began exploring the world by sea in search of trading partners, new goods, and new trade routes luxury items
How was Louis XIV an example of an absolute ruler? he had the longest reign of power in all of europe's history he knew everyone's business and everything revolved around him
What positive impact did the Puritan government have during England’s Commonwealth of the 1600s? had to be smart free public education strict, religious society
How did the Thirty Years War end? the westphalia treaty that ended the thirty years' war, one of the most destructive conflicts in the history of europe
What contribution did Montesquieu make to the Enlightenment? he was one of the leading philosophers in the enlightenment, and his theories on the separation of powers in government directly influenced the documents authors
What Enlightenment principle is reflected in both the U.S. Constitution and the Napoleonic Code? code of laws all people are created equally
How did Napoleon rule as a democratic despot? democratic dictator
Which social class benefited most from the industrial revolution? bourgeoisie (middle class)
How did Socialists seek to end the poverty and injustice of industrial capitalism? looked at capitalism end poverty and injustice equal profits
What innovation made factories much more efficient in the early 1900s? assembly lines
What made the Balkan region the “powder keg” of Europe in the early 1900s? nationalism
What factors helped certain nations to industrialize before others? resources
What did Karl Marx believe was the biggest factor determining the course of history? economics
What is a nationalist (someone who believes in the ideology of nationalism)? someone who is willing to die for their homeland
What impact did Charles Darwin’s theory of natural selection have on science and society? the strong survive survival of the fittest
How did the Industrial Revolution encourage imperialism? it assured western economic and military ascendancy, it demanded both suppliers of raw materials and retail markets, and it provided transportation and logistical supports for conquest, colonization and resource exploitation
What attitude did western imperial powers have toward their subject people (the people they conquered)? they thought they were better and smarter
How did World War I become a global war so quickly? everybody had mutual support treaties with other countries. (alliances)
Which ethnic group suffered most under Hitler and the Nazis? the jewish people
Created by: sk3091