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Ms.Rida's Final Exam

Use this to review all the key terms for the comprehensive Semester I final.

TermDefinition
Monotheism The belief in one God- introduced by the Jews.
Polytheism The belief in many gods- almost all ancient religions were based on this.
Enlightenment (Buddhism) In Buddhism, this is a state of perfect wisdom and understanding of the basic truths of the universe and results in a break in the chain of reincarnations.
Caliph Leader of the Muslims after Muhammad- it means "successor" or deputy.
Sunni A division within Islam that holds that caliph could be any Muslim who followed the example of Muhammad.
Shi'a A division in Islam that believes that the caliph needs to be relative of Muhammad and acknowledges Ali and his descendents as the rightful successors.
Pope Head of the Catholic Church- his other job is to be the bishop of Rome.
Karma Totality of the good and bad deeds performed by a person which is believed to determined one's next life in Hinduism and Buddhism.
Siddhartha Gautama The prince who left his family and became the founder of Buddhism.
Abraham Founder of Judaism- important in Christianity and Islam as well.
Muhammad Founder of Islam.
Feudalism A political system based on mutual rights and obligations between kings, lords and vassals and is a system of governing and land-holding.
Manor A lord's estate that is comprised of the land, house, workshops, and peasants homes.
Manorialism An economic system based on mutual rights and obligations between a lord and his peasants and/or serf
Lord This land-owner/giver is important to both Feudalism and Manorialism.
Peasants Skilled workers who could leave the manor and look for work elsewhere.
Fief Is the name of a land grant given to vassals in exchange for work and military protection.
Vassal A person who receives a fief. A noble becomes this when he receives land in exchange for loyalty, taxes, and military service.
Knight Vassals who were soldiers that are mounted on horseback that protect the lord's land and hope to be known for their bravery in battle.
Serfs Farmers and unskilled workers who could not lawfully leave the land that they were born into.
Tithe The tax peasants and serfs owed to the Church after they had paid all their other taxes to their lord.
Reconquista the effort by Christian leaders to drive out the Muslims out of Spain
Humanism a Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
Indulgences a pardon releasing a person from punishments due for a sin.
Vernacular the everyday language of people in a region or country.
Renaissance a period of European history that lasted from 1300 to 1600 during which there was a rebirth of art and learning.
Patron a person who supports artists, especially financially
Perspective an artistic technique that creates the appearance of three dimensions on a flat surface
Secular concerned with worldly rather than religious/spiritual matters
Medici Family a wealthy family in Florence, Italy that were patrons of art.
Leonardo Da Vinci famous painter, sculptor, inventor and scientist that makes him the best example of a Renaissance man; famous for The Mona Lisa and The Last Supper
Akbar He encouraged religious tolerance in the Mughal Empire and presided over a great cultural and artistic age.
Timur the Lame This Central Asian conqueror interrupted the growth of the Ottoman Empire when he invaded the Ottomans.
Cultural blending This interaction of two or more cultures produces new languages and new ideas in art, religion, and society.
Devshirme Christian boys were taken as slaves, converted to Islam, and turned into warriors and government officials as part of this Ottoman policy.
Ghazi This was the term for a warrior for Islam who belonged to a military society with a strict code of conduct.
Sultan Arabic word that means ‘overlord' or ‘one with power'
Janissary a member of an elite force of soldiers in the Ottoman Empire trained to be loyal to the sultan only.
Mughals One of the nomads who invaded the Indian subcontinent in the 16th century and established a powerful empire there, they called themselves this which means "Mongols"
Ottomans Followers of Othman named themselves this and they created a powerful Muslim military empire
Sikhs a member of a non-violent religious group whose beliefs blend elements of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Sufism.
Encomienda a grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it.
Atlantic Slave Trade the buying, transporting, and selling of Africans for work in the Americas.
Columbian Exchange the global transfer of plants, animals, and diseases that occurred during the European colonization of the Americas.
Joint-Stock Companies a business in which investors pool their wealth for a common purpose, then share the profits.
Mercantilism an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
Icon A religious symbol or image used by Easter Christians during their worship.
Tang Dynasty The dynasty founded by ___ expanded China, promoted foreign trade, and promoted improvements in agriculture.
10 Commandments Ten orders or laws given by God to Moses on Mount Sinai for the Jews to follow and live by.
Hijrah Muhammad's migration from Mecca to Medina in A.D.622 that made him into an important political leader.
Pastoralists Nomadic peoples who herded animals were called ___.
Movable Type ___, an important Chinese technological advance, revolutionized printing.
Kublai Khan The Mongol ruler ___ united China for the first time in 300 years.
Genghis Khan ___ united the Mongols and led them in conquering much of Asia.
Marco Polo Most European readers did not believe the stories that the Venetian merchant ___ told about what he had seen in China.
Samurai ___ were loyal warriors and bodyguards of their lords.
Shogun A leader with the title of ___ had the power of a military dictator in Japan.
Bushido A japanese code of behavior has a name meaning "the way of the warrior"
Shinto A japanese religion that believed that an especially beautiful tree, rock, or mountain was the home of a kami
Gentry A class of powerful, well-to-do people who enjoy a high social status.
Clan A group of people descended from a common ancestor.
Pax Mongolica The time period from the mid-1200s to mid-1300s during which the Mongols brought stability and law and order to much of Eurasia and trade became much safer.
Tang Taizong The dynasty founded by _________ expanded China, promoted foreign, and promoted improvements in agriculture, so his dynasty was named after him.
Created by: fatmehreda