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Gerontology

Gerontology Chapter 24

QuestionAnswer
Gerontology Study of all aspects of the aging process
Aging (Senescence) Process of growing old
Integumentary System - Notable changes due to aging Graying of hair Wrinkling of skin Reduced skin turgor Dry scaly skin Thinning epidermis Thicker nails Age spots
Nervous System - Notable changes due to aging Slower nerve transmission Slower voluntary movements Stooped forward-flexed posture Slowed gait Dry eyes Impaired ability to hear high-pitched sounds Decreased ability to maintain balance and correct imbalance
Skeletal System - Notable changes due to aging Normal age-related changes affect mobility After age 50, musculoskeletal system gradually loses bone mass Increase in bone fragility Decrease in bone strength
Respiratory System - Notable changes due to aging Decreased volume during inspiration and expiration Loss of elasticity in pulmonary tissue Decreased action of cilia within respiratory tract Respiratory muscle strength and endurance decreases Decreased strength for breathing and/or coughing
Muscles and Joints - Notable changes due to aging Loss of muscle mass Decline in muscle strength Cartilage in joints eventually erodes Increasing stress on underlying bone Joint mobility is hampered
Gerontology Study of all aspects of the aging process
Aging (Senescence) Process of growing old
Integumentary System - Notable changes due to aging Graying of hair Wrinkling of skin Reduced skin turgor Dry scaly skin Thinning epidermis Thicker nails Age spots
Nervous System - Notable changes due to aging Slower nerve transmission Slower voluntary movements Stooped forward-flexed posture Slowed gait Dry eyes Impaired ability to hear high-pitched sounds Decreased ability to maintain balance and correct imbalance
Skeletal System - Notable changes due to aging Normal age-related changes affect mobility After age 50, musculoskeletal system gradually loses bone mass Increase in bone fragility Decrease in bone strength
Respiratory System - Notable changes due to aging Decreased volume during inspiration and expiration Loss of elasticity in pulmonary tissue Decreased action of cilia within respiratory tract Respiratory muscle strength and endurance decreases Decreased strength for breathing and/or coughing
Muscles and Joints - Notable changes due to aging Loss of muscle mass Decline in muscle strength Cartilage in joints eventually erodes Increasing stress on underlying bone Joint mobility is hampered
Blood and Lymphatic Systems - Notable changes due to aging Percentage of bone marrow space occupied by tissue that produces blood cells declines progressively After age of 70 Decreased immunity Specific antibody responses to foreign antigens is impaired
Cardiovascular System - Notable changes due to aging Workload of heart may be compromised due to accumulation of excess fat surrounding the heart Risk for cardiovascular disease increases significantly in women after menopause
Digestive System - Notable changes due to aging Loss of teeth related to dental or periodontal problems Decrease in quality and quantity of saliva Some decrease in normal peristalsis in esophagus Weakness in musculature of large intestine
Endocrine System - Notable changes due to aging Overall decline in hormone secretion Diminished tissue sensitivity to secreted hormones Most notable decrease in hormones is in estrogen and testosterone Change in glucose tolerance
Special Senses (Eye and Ear) - Notable changes due to aging Impairment of vision Hearing impairment
Urinary System - Notable changes due to aging Aging kidney is more susceptible to trauma or disease Number of nephron units of the kidney decrease during the aging process 50 percent decrease in glomerular filtration rate by age 70 to 80
Male Reproductive System - Notable changes due to aging Decrease in testosterone level Decrease in sperm production Decrease in muscle tone of scrotum Decrease in size and firmness of testicles Enlargement of prostate gland
Female Reproductive System - Notable changes due to aging Physical changes occur after menopause Ovaries cease to produce ova Less estrogen hormone secreted General atrophy of genitalia Vaginal dryness Breast sagging due to changes
Alzheimer’s Disease Affects brain cortex Progressive and extremely debilitating deterioration of a person’s intellectual functioning
Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) Neurological deficit resulting from decrease in blood (ischemia) to localized area in brain Deficit differs according to degree of involvement, amount of time blood flow decreased, and region of brain
CVA Symptoms Sudden numbness, tingling, weakness or loss of movement in extremities or face Sudden visual disturbance and/or vocal disturbance Headache, dizziness, confusion
CVA Causes Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) Cerebral thrombosis Cerebral embolism Cerebral hemorrhage
Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) Also known as mini strokes Brief periods of ischemia in the brain
Cerebral thrombosis Occurs largely in individuals older than 50
Cerebral embolism Embolus causes an occlusion
Cerebral hemorrhage Cerebral vessel ruptures
Parkinson’s Disease Degenerative, slowly progressive deterioration of nerves in the brain stem’s motor system, characterized by a gradual onset of symptoms
Parkinson’s Disease Symptoms stooped posture with body flexed forward, bowed head, shuffling gait, pill-rolling gestures, expressionless mask-like facial appearance
Paget’s Disease (Osteitis Deformans) Nonmetabolic disease of the bone, characterized by excessive bone destruction and unorganized bone formation by osteoblasts
Emphysema Chronic pulmonary disease characterized by increase beyond normal in size of air spaces distal to terminal bronchiole
Pneumonia Acute inflammation of lungs caused mainly by inhaled pneumococci of the species Streptococcus pneumoniae May also be caused by other bacteria, as well as viruses
Pneumonia Complications Pleural effusion Fluid in the pleura (space that separates the tissue layers of the lungs and chest wall) Bacteremia Bacteria in bloodstream Lung abscess Pus accumulates in a cavity of the lung Breathing difficulty
Severe sepsis = sepsis with at least one organ failure
Septic shock = sepsis with persistent hypotension and perfusion abnormalities
Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS) = sepsis with multiple organ failure
Diverticular Disease Expression used to characterize both diverticulosis and diverticulitis
Diverticulosis noninflamed outpouchings or herniations of the muscular layer of the intestines
Diverticulitis inflammation of these outpouchings
Coronary Artery Disease Narrowing of coronary arteries to the extent that adequate blood supply to the myocardium is prevented
Coronary bypass surgery = coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) Procedure designed to increase blood flow into the myocardium by rerouting blood around the occluded area
Treatments for occluded coronary arteries Medications Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) Directional coronary atherectomy Coronary bypass surgery = coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
Acrochordon Benign growth that hangs from a short stalk, commonly occurring on the neck, eyelids, axilla, or groin of an older adult Also known as a skin tag
Actinic Keratosis Premalignant warty lesion, occurring on the sun-exposed skin of the face or hands in aged light-skinned persons Raised areas appear scaly and may bleed at the edges
Eczema Acute or chronic inflammatory skin condition characterized by erythema, papules, vesicles, pustules, scales, crusts, scabs, and itching
Fracture of the Hip Break in continuity of bone involving upper third of femur
Osteomalacia Abnormal softening of bones due to a deficiency of calcium and phosphorus in blood, which is necessary for bone mineralization
Osteoporosis Porous bones Bones that were once strong become fragile due to loss of bone density Occurs more frequently in postmenopausal women, in sedentary or immobilized individuals, and in patients on long-term steroid treatment
Osteoarthritis Most common form of arthritis Results from wear and tear on the joints, especially weight-bearing joints such as hips and knees Also known as degenerative joint disease Universal prevalence in those age 80 and over
Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Acute viral infection characterized by inflammation of the underlying spinal or cranial nerve pathway producing painful, vesicular eruptions on the skin along these nerve pathways
Arteriosclerosis Arterial condition in which there is thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the walls of arteries (hardening of the arteries)
Congestive Heart Failure Condition in which pumping ability of the heart is progressively impaired to the point that it no longer meets bodily needs
Influenza Highly contagious viral infection of the respiratory tract Transmitted by airborne droplet infection Flu
Pulmonary Edema Swelling of lungs caused by an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the lungs Either in alveoli or the interstitial spaces
Pulmonary Heart Disease (Cor Pulmonale) Hypertrophy of right ventricle of the heart With or without failure Resulting from disorders of the lungs, pulmonary vessels, or chest wall
Achalasia Decreased mobility of the lower two-thirds of the esophagus along with constriction of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
Colorectal Cancer Presence of a malignant neoplasm in the large intestine
Macular Degeneration Progressive deterioration of the retinal cells in the macula due to aging Known as senile or age-related macular degeneration (ARMD
Atrophic Vaginitis Degeneration of vaginal mucous membrane after menopause Also known as senile vaginitis
Coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) Surgical procedure designed to increase blood flow to myocardial muscle Involves bypass grafts to coronary arteries that reroute blood flow around occluded area of coronary artery
Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) Nonsurgical procedure in which a catheter, equipped with a small balloon on one end, is inserted into femoral artery and threaded up aorta (under X-ray visualization) into narrowed coronary artery
Directional coronary atherectomy Procedure that uses a catheter (AtheroCath) Small mechanically driven cutter that shaves plaque and stores it in a collection chamber Plaque is removed from artery when the device is withdrawn
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio-Pancreatography (ERCP) Diagnostic procedure to examine the pancreatic and bile ducts.
Colonoscopy Direct visualization of lining of large intestine using a fiberoptic colonoscope Procedure is used to check for colonic polyps or possible malignant tumors
Created by: wallace263