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Medical Term. Ch. 6

Medical Terminology Chapter 6

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome commonly known as AIDS; the most advanced, and fatal, stage of an HIV infection
Allergen a substance that produces an allergic reaction in an individual
Antibiotic medication that is capable of inhibiting growth, or killing pathogenic bacterial microorganisms
Antibody a disease-fighting protein created by the immune system in response to the presence of a specific antigen
Antifungal an agent that destroys or inhibits the growth of fungi
Antigen any substance that the body regards as being foreign, and includes viruses, bacteria, toxins, and transplanted tissues
Antigen-Antibody reaction aka immune reaction; involves binding antigens to antibodies
Autoimmune disorder any of a large group of diseases characterized by a condition in which the immune system produces antibodies against its own tissues
Bacilli rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria
Bacteria one-celled microscopic organisms
Carcinoma a malignant tumor that occurs in epithelial tissue
Carcinoma in situ describes a malignant tumor in its original position that has not yet disturbed or invaded the surrounding tissues
Complement a group of proteins that normally circulate in the blood in an inactive form and are activated by contact with nonspecific antigens such as foreign blood cells or bacteria; then marks these foreign invaders & attracts phagocytes to destroy these antigens
Cytomegalovirus a member of the herpes virus family that cause a variety of diseases
Cytotoxic drug a medication that kills or damages cells
Ductal carcinoma in situ breast cancer at its earliest stage before the cancer has broken through the wall of the milk duct
Hemolytic function of destroying worn-out red blood cells and releasing their hemoglobin for reuse
Herpes zoster aka shingles; an acute viral infection characterized by painful skin eruptions that follow the underlying route of an inflamed nerve
Hodgkin's lymphoma distinguished from other lymphomas by the presence of large, cancerous lymphocytes known as Reed-Sternberg cells
Human immunodeficiency virus a bloodborne infection in which the virus damages or kills the cells of the immune system, causing it to progressively fail, thus leaving the body at risk of developing many life-threatening oppurtunistic infections
Immunodeficiency disorder occurs when the immune response is compromised
Immunoglobulins bind with specific antigens in the antigen-antibody response
Immunosuppressant a substance that prevents or reduces the body's normal immune response
Immunotherapy a disease treatment that involves either stimulating or repressing the immune response
Infectious mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus; characterized by fever, a sore throat, and enlarged lymph nodes
Infiltrating ductal carcinoma starts in milk duct, breaks through the wall of that duct, and invades the fatty breast tissue
Interferon a family of proteins produced by the T cells whose specialty is fighting viruses by slowing or stopping their multiplication
Lymphadenitis aka swollen glands; an inflammation of the lymph nodes
Lymphadenopathy any disease process affecting a lymph node or nodes
Lymphangioma a benign tumor formed by an abnormal collection of lymphatic vessels due to a congenital malformation of the lymphatic system
Lymphedema swelling due to an abnormal accumulation of lymph fluid within the tissues
Lymphocytes white blood cells that are formed in bone marrow as stem cells
Lymphokines are produced by the T cells and direct the antigen-antibody response by signaling between the cells of the immune system; attract macrophages to the infected site and prepare them to attack the invaders
Lymphoma a general term applied to malignancies affecting lymphoid tissues
Lymphoscintigraphy a diagnostic test that is performed to detect damage or malformations of the lymphatic vessels
Macrophage a type of white blood cell that surrounds and kills invading cells
Malaria a disease caused by a parasite that lives in certain mosquitoes that is transferred to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito
Mammography a radiographic examination of the breasts to detect the presence of tumors or precancerous cells
Metastasis a new cancer site that results from the spreading process
Metastasize the process by which cancer spreads from one place to another
Myoma a benign tumor made up of muscle tissue
Myosarcoma a malignant tumor derived from muscle tissue
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma the term used to describe all lymphomas other than Hodgkin's lymphoma
Opportunistic infection caused by a pathogen that does not normally produce an illness in healthy humans
Osteosarcoma a malignant tumor usually involving the upper shaft of long bones, the pelvis, or knee
Parasite a plant or animal that lives on, or within, another living organism at the expense of that organism
Pathogen a microorganism that causes a disease in humans
Rabies an acute viral infection that is most commonly transmitted to humans by the bite or saliva of an infected animal
Rickettsia a small bacterium that lives in lice, fleas, and mites
Rubella a viral infection characterized by a low-grade fever, swollen glands, inflamed eyes, and a fine, pink rash
Sarcoma a malignant tumor that arises from connective tissues, including hard tissues, soft tissues, and liquid tissues
Spirochetes spiral-shaped bacteria that have flexible walls and are capable of movement
Splenomegaly an abnormal enlargement of the spleen
Staphylococci a group of about 30 species of bacteria that form irregular groups or clusters resembling grapes
Streptococci bacteria that form a chain
Teletherapy radiation therapy administered at a distance from the body
Tetanus caused by the bacillus Clostridium tetani, and is transmitted through a cut or wound
Toxoplasmosis a parasite most commonly transmitted from animals to humans by contact with contaminated feces
Varicella aka chickenpox; caused by the herpes virus Varicella zoster and is highly contagious; characterized by a fever and a rash consisting of hundreds of itchy, fluid-filled blisters that burst and form crusts
BSE Breast self-examination
CA, Ca Carcinoma
CIS Carcinoma in situ
CMV Cytomegalovirus
DCIS Ductal Carcinoma in Situ
ELISA Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay
EBV Epstein-Barr virus
HZ Herpes zoster
HIV Human immunodeficiency virus
MET Metastasis
met Metastasize
NHL Non-Hodkin's lymphoma
Anoxia the absence of oxygen from the body's gases, blood, or tissues
Anthracosis aka black lung disease; caused by coal dust in the lungs
Antitussive commonly known as cough medicine; administered to prevent or relieve coughing
Aphonia the loss of the ability of the larynx to produce normal speech sounds
Apnea the absence of spontaneous respiration
Asbestosis caused by asbestos particles in the lungs and usually occurs after working with asbestos
Asphyxia the condition that occurs when the body cannot get the air it needs to function
Asphyxiation aka suffocation; any interruption of normal breathing resulting in asphyxia
Aspiration pneumonia can occur when a foreign substance, such as vomit, is inhaled into the lungs
Asthma a chronic allergic disorder characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing, and wheezing
Atelectasis the collapse of part of all of a lung by blockage of the air passages or by very shallow breathing
Bradypnea an abnormally slow rate of respiration usually of less that 10 breaths per minute
Bronchodilator a medication that expands the opening of the passages into the lungs
Bronchorrhea an excessive discharge of mucus from the bronchi
Bronchoscopy the visual examination of the bronchi using a bronchoscope
Bronchospasm a contraction of the smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles that tighten and squeeze the airway shut
Cheyne-Stokes respiration pattern of alternating periods of hypopnea or apnea, followed by hyperpnea
Croup an acute respiratory syndrome in children and infants characterized by obstruction of the larynx, hoarseness, and a barking cough
Cystic fibrosis a genetic disorder in which the lungs and pancreas are clogged with large quantities of abnormally thick mucus
Diphtheria an acute bacterial infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract
Dysphonia any change in vocal quality, including hoarseness, weakness, or the cracking of a boy's voice during puberty
Dyspnea aka shortness of breath; difficult or labored breathing
Emphysema the progressive loss of lung function that is characterized by a decrease in the total number of alveoli, the enlargement of the remaining alveoli, and the progressive destruction of the walls of the remaining alveoli
Empyema a collection of pus within a body cavity
Endotracheal intubation the passage of a tube through the nose or mouth into the trachea to establish or maintain an open airway
Epistaxis aka nosebleed; bleeding from the nose that is usually caused by an injury, excessive use of blood thinners, or bleeding disorders
Hemoptysis coughing up of blood or bloodstained sputum derived from the lungs or bronchial tubes as the result of a pulmonary or bronchial hemorrhage
Hemothorax a collection of blood in the pleural cavity
Hypercapnia the abnormal buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood
Hyperpnea breathing that is deeper and more rapid than is normal at rest
Hypopnea shallow or slow respiration
Hypoxemia a condition of having below-normal oxygen level in the blood
Hypoxia the condition of having below-normal oxygen levels in the body tissues and cells
Laryngectomy the surgical removal of the larynx
Laryngitis an inflammation of the larynx
Laryngoplegia a paralysis of the larynx
Laryngoscopy the visual examination of the larynx using a laryngoscope inserted through the mouth and placed into the pharynx to examine the larynx
Mediastinum the cavity located between the lungs
Nubulizer pumps air or oxygen through a liquid medicine to turn it into a vapor
Otolaryngologist a physician with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the ears, nose, throat, and related structures of the head and neck
Pertussis aka whooping cough; a contagious bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract that is characterized by recurrent bouts of paroxysmal cough, followed by breathlessness, and a noisy inspiration
Pharyngitis aka sore throat; an inflammation of the pharynx
Pharyngoplasty the surgical repair of the pharynx
Pleurectomy the surgical removal of part of the pleura
Pleurisy an inflammation of the pleura that produces sharp chest pain with each breath
Pleurodynia pain in the pleura that occurs in relation to breathing movements
Pneumoconiosis fibrosis of the lung tissues caused by dust in the lungs that usually develops after prolonged environmental or occupational contact
Pneumonectomy the surgical removal of all or part of a lung
Pneumothorax the accumulation of air in the pleural space causing a pressure imbalance that prevents the lung from fully expanding or can cause it to collapse
Polysomnography aka sleep apnea study; measures physiological activity during sleep and is most often performed to detect nocturnal defects in breathing associated with sleep apnea
Pulmonologist a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the lungs and associated tissues
Pulse oximeter an external monitor placed on the patient's finger or earlobe to measure the oxygen saturation level in the blood
Pyothorax the presence of pus in the pleural cavity between the layers of the pleural membrane
Sinusitis an inflammation of the sinuses
Tachypnea an abnormally rapid rate of respiration usually of more than 20 breaths per minute
Thoracentesis the surgical puncture of the chest wall with a needle to obtain fluid from the pleural cavity
Thoracostomy the surgical creation of an opening into the chest cavity
Tracheostomy the creation of a stoma into the trachea and inserting a tube to facilitate the passage of air or the removal of secretions
Tracheotomy usually an emergency procedure in which an incision is made into the trachea to gain access to the airway below a blockage
Tuberculosis an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis; usually attacks the lungs, but can affect other parts of the body
COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
CF Cystic Fibrosis
diph Diphtheria
PCP Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
pneu, pneum pneumonia
PPV Positive Pressure Ventilation
PD Postural Drainage
PFT Pulmonary Function Test
URI Upper Respiratory Infection
PPD Purified Protein Derivative
R, resp Respiration
RF Respiratory Failure
RR Respiratory Rate
SARS Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
SIDS Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
Aerophagia the excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking, and is a common cause of gas in the stomach
Amebic dysentery transmitted by food or water that is contaminated due to poor sanitary conditions; symptoms include loose stools, stomach pain, and stomach cramping; bloody stools, or fever in a more sever case
Anastomosis a surgical connection between two hollow or tubular structures
Anorexia nervosa an eating disorder characterized by a false perception of body appearance; voluntary starvation and excessive exercising
Antiemetic a medication that is administered to prevent or relieve nausea and vomiting
Aphthous ulcers aka canker sores or mouth ulcers; gray-white pits with a red border in the soft tissues lining the mouth
Ascites an abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity
Bariatrics the branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of obesity and associated diseases
Borborygmus the rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine
Botulism food poisoning; condition transmitted through contaminated food or an infected wound; symptoms include paralysis and sometimes death
Bulimia nervosa an eating disorder characterized by frequent episodes of binge eating followed by compensatory behaviors such as self-induced vomiting or the misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or other medications
Cachexia a condition of physical wasting away due to the loss of weight and muscle mass that occurs in patients with diseases such as advanced cancer or AIDS
Cheilosis a disorder of the lips characterized by crack-like sores at the corners of the mouth
Cholangiography a radiographic examination of the bile ducts with the use of a contrast medium
Cholangitis an acute infection of the bile duct characterized by pain in the upper-right quadrant of the abdomen
Cholecystalgia pain in the gallbladder
Cholecystectomy the surgical removal of the gallbladder
Cholecystitis inflammation of the gallbladder, usually associated with gallstones blocking the flow of bile
Choledocholithotomy an incision into the common bile duct for the removal of gallstones
Cholelithiasis the presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or bile ducts
Cholera transmitted through contact with contaminated food or water; symptoms starte with diarrhea and can progress to profuse diarrhea, vomiting, and rapid dehydration that can be fatal if not treated.
Cirrhosis a progressive degenerative disease of the liver that is often caused by excessive alcohol use or by viral hepatitis B or C
Colonoscopy the direct visual examination of the inner surface of the entire colon from the rectum to the cecum
Crohn's disease a chronic autoimmune disorder that can occur anywhere in the digestive tract; however, it is most often found in the ileum and in the colon
Diverticulitis the inflammation of one or more diverticula in the colon
Diverticulosis the presence of a number of diverticula in the colon
Dyspepsia aka indigestion; pain or discomfort in digestion
Dysphagia difficulty in swallowing
Emesis aka vomiting; the reflex ejection of the stomach contents through the mouth
Enteritis an inflammation of the small intestine caused by eating or drinking substances contaminated with viral and bacterial pathogens
Eructation the act of belching or raising gas orally from the stomach
Esophageal varices enlarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus
Gastroduodenostomy the establishment of an anastomosis between the upper portion of the stomach and the duodenum
Gastroesophageal reflux disease aka GERD; the upward flow of acid from the stomach into the esophagus
Gastrostomy tube a surgically placed feeding tube from the exterior of the body into the stomach
Hematemesis the vomiting of blood
Hemoccult test a laboratory test for hidden blood in the stools
Hepatitis an inflammtion of the liver
Herpes labialis aka cold sores or fever blisters; blister-like sores on the lips and adjacent facial tissue that are caused by the oral herpes simplex virus type 1
Hiatal hernia a condition in which a portion of the stomach protrudes upward into the chest, through an opening in the diaphragm
Hyperemesis extreme, persistent vomiting that can cause dehydration
Ileus the partial or complete blockage of the small and/or large intestine
Inguinal hernia the protrusion of a small loop of bowel through a weak place in the lower abdominal wall or groin
Jaundice a yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and the eyes
Melena the passage of black, tarry and foul-smelling stools
Morbid obesity the condition of weighing two to three times, or more, than the ideal weight or having a body mass index value greater than 39
Nasogastric intubation the placement of a feeding tube through the nose and into the stomach
Obesity an excessive accumulation of fat in the body
Periodontium consists of the bone and soft tissues that surround and support the teeth
Peristalsis a series of wave-like contractions of the smooth muscles in a single direction
Proctopexy the surgical fixation of a prolapsed rectum to an adjacent tissue or organ
Regurgitaion the return of swallowed food into the mouth
Salmonellosis transmitted by food that is contaminated by feces; symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and high fever
Sigmoidoscopy the endoscopic examination of the interior of the rectum, sigmoid colon, and possibly a portion of the descending colon
stomatorrhagia describes bleeding from any part of the mouth
Trismus describes any restriction to the opening of the mouth caused by trauma, surgery, or radiation associated with the treatment of oral cancer
Ulcerative colitis a chronic condition of unknown cause in which repeated episodes of inflammation in the rectum and large intestine cause ulcers and irritation
Volvulus the twisting of the intestine on itself that causes an obstruction
Xerostomia aka dry mouth; the lack of adequate saliva due to diminished secretions by the salivary glands
BMI Body Mass Index
chole Cholecystectomy
EGD Esophagogastroduodenoscopy
FOBT Fecal occult blood test
GB Gallbladder
GERD Gastroesophageal reflux disease
HH Hiatal hernia
IBS Irritable Bowel Syndrome
O & P Ova and parasites
HSV-1 Oral Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1
TMD Temporomandibular disorders
Anti- against
Carcin/o cancerous
Immuno/o immune, protection, safe
Lymph/o lymph, lymphatic tissue
Lymphaden/o lymph gland
Lymphangi/o lymph vessel
Neo-, ne/o new, strange
-oma tumor, neoplasm
onc/o tumor
phag/o eat, swallow
-plasm formative material of cells
sarc/o flesh, connective tissue
splen/o spleen
-tic pertaining to
tox/o poison, poisonous
bronch/o, bronchi/o bronchial tube, bronchus
cyan/o blue
laryng/o larynx, throat
ox/i, ox/o, ox/y oxygen
pharyng/o throat, pharynx
phon/o sound, voice
pleur/o pleura, side of the body
-pnea breathing
pneum/o, pneumon/o, pneu- lung, air
pulm/o, pulmon/o lung
somn/o sleep
spir/o to breathe
tachy- fast, rapid
thorac/o, -thorax chest
trache/o trachea, windpipe
an/o anus
chol/e bile, gall
cholecyst/o gallbladder
col/o, colon/o colon, large intestine
-emesis vomiting
enter/o small intestine
esophag/o esophagus
gastr/o stomach, belly
hepat/o liver
-lithiasis presence of stones
-pepsia digest, digestion
-phagia eating, swallowing
proct/o anus and rectum
rect/o rectum, straight
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
Created by: Mandi11089