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The Age of Reason

The English Civil War, the Enlightenment, & the Scientific Revolution

Divine right The idea that monarchs received their authority to rule from God
Absolute ruler Someone who has centralized power, can create law, can tax heavily, and has absolute rule
Louis XIV (the Sun King) -Revoked the Edict of Nantes forcing all French to be catholic -Instituted heavy taxes to build the Palace of Versailles(a symbol of his power)
Peter I (the great) -Forced Russia to westernize -Instituted heavy taxes to build a capital in his name ( St. Petersburg) and a modern Western military
Versailles Palace, The palace Louis XIV built to symbolize his power
English Civil War Parliament revolts against King Charles I for his abuse of power, the forces of King Charles I are defeated by the forces of Parliament, and King Charles I is executed
Roundheads The forces of Parliament
Cavaliers The forces of King Charles I
King Charles I -Strong believer in divine right and absolutism -King of England from 1625-1649
King Charles II -Charles I's heir -King of England from 1660-1685
King James II -King who wanted to restore power to the throne and flaunt his Catholic faith -Ruled from 1685-1688
William & Mary -King James's Protestant daughter and her husband William assumed the throne in her father's place -Signed the English Bill of Rights in 1689
Constitutional or limited monarchy -The power of Parliament was greater than the power of the King and Queen's.
Period of the "restoration of the Monarchy" -Begins 1660 when Charles II is called by Parliament to resume Monarchy in England, he rules until he dies, then James II comes but tries to have absolute monarchy, and Parliament instead asks his daughter Mary & and her husband William
Oliver Cromwell -Leader of the Roundheads, executes Charles II and establishes the English Commonwealth and imposes strict rule based on Puritan religious sta-ndards
The Commonwealth -Period when England was ruled as a republic, and Oliver Cromwell took over government and ruled himself
The Glorious Revolution Revolutionary change in government which was achieved without bloodshed and war
The Enlightenment -Era when reason was applied to understanding the human society, especially with law and government -Encouraged religious toleration
The Scientific Revolution The introduction of the scientific method, "reason over religion", systematic observations, and expansion of scientific knowledge
Thomas Hobbes -Wrote "Leviathan" -Believed humans in the "state of nature" were chaos, and government should have absolute power to preserve order
John Locke -Wrote "Two Treaties on Government" -Believed that people created governments to protect their natural rights
Montesquieu -Wrote "Spirit of Laws" -Believed in separation of powers was the best way to prevent absolutism
Jean-Jacques Rousseau -Wrote "The Social Contract" -Believed people and the government had a contract and both sides had obligations to fufill
Voltaire -Believed in religious toleration, and separation of church and state
Leviathan -Book written by Thomas Hobbes that concerns the structure of society and legitimate government
Two Treatises on Government -work of political philosophy written by John Locke that outlines Locke's ideas for a more civilized society based on natural rights
In the Spirit of Laws -Treatise on political theory written by Montesquieu that covers many things including law and social life
The Social Contract -A book written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau in which he theorized the best way to establish a political community
Nicolaus Copernicus -Discovered the heliocentric theory
Johannes Keplar -Published the idea that planetary motion is in the form of elliptical orbits around the sun
Galileo Galilei -Used telescope to confirm heliocentric theory but was forced to renounce his theory when the Court of Inquisition prosecuted him
Sir Isaac Newton -Developed the laws of gravity
William Harvey -Discovered blood circulates throughout the body in a closed system
Johann Sebastian Bach -Famous Baroque composer
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart -Famous Classical composer
Eugene de la Croix -Painter who contributed to Romanticism
Romanticism -An artistic movement focused on the beauty of nature and exposing human emotion
Miguel de Cervantes -Helped to develop a new form of literature, the novel, with his book Don Quixote
Created by: amfq5678