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The Age of Reason

The English Civil War, The Enlightenment & The Scientific Revolution

TermDefinition
Divine Right The idea that monarchs gotten their authority from God.
Absolute Ruler Having total control over the country.
Peter I (The Great) 1) Ruled over Russia 2)Forced Russia to Westernize 3)Forced Russian nobles to shave their beards 4)Instituted heavy taxes to build a new capital in his name "St. Petersburg" and create a modern Western military.
Versailles Palace Official residence of kings court, symbol of royal power, to show the importance of France.
English Civil War A war between the Parliamentarians and the Royalists under Charles the 1st. (Roundheads vs. Calivers)
Cavaliers The forces of King Charles the 1st in England during English Civil War
Roundheads The forces of Parliament in England during English Civil War
King Charles I Ruler of England. He fought with the Parliament over money and was beheaded.
King Charles II King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 until his death.Son of Charles I, king of Restoration Monarchy after Oliver Cromwell's death
King James II Brother of Charles II, set up a nearly absolute monarchy that led to conflict with parliament and upset the people of England
William & Mary Protestant co-monarchs of England who were brought in by Parliament for the Glorious Revolution which overthrew Catholic James II.
Constitutional or Limited Monarchy a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the parameters of a written or blended constitution.
Period of the "Restoration of the Monarchy" The Monarchy in 1660 after the experiment with being a commonwealth/republic failed in a way.
Oliver Cromwell Became ruler of England after the defeat of King Charles the 1st. He called himself Lord Protector. He set up a dictatorship and created a strict Purtan state. Such as No Christmas, No sports, No colorful clothing, No makeup, No swearing,No threater.
The Commonwealth A new period where a new government was form by Oliver Cromwell. The House of Lords and monarchy were abolished and England was declared republic.
The Scientific Revolution A major shift in logical thinking between 1500 and 1700 in which modern science arised as new ways of gaining knowledge about the natural world.
Thomas Hobbes Believed that humans were greedy and selfish and needed government to protect the people from themselves. Also wrote the book "Leviathan"
John Locke Believed that every human being had natural rights ; rights to life, liberty and property.
Montesquieu Believed in creating a checks and balance system in government. He thought the best way to end absolutism was to create a separation of powers within the government.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau Believed that government is a contract between the people and the ruler. He wrote "The Social Contract."
Voltaire Believed in freedom of speech,the press and religious tolerance.
Leviathan An authoritative figure that leads people without any doubt or competition
Two Treatises on Government Written by John Locke in 1692, this political work had the belief that people were born free and equal with three natural rights, life, liberty and property. People made a social contract with the government to protect those rights.
In the Spirit of Laws political theory book written in 1748 by Montesquieu; said that the natural law of government was all about liberty and no abuse of power. He introduced his theory of the separation of powers, which was essentially the checks and balances system.
The Social Contract An unwritten agreement between the people and their government.
Nicolaus Copernicus Came up with the Heliocentric Theory and published the discovery that the sun was the center of the solar system, not earth and therefore, the Earth revolves around the Sun.
Johannes Kepler Published the idea that planetary motion is in the form of elliptical orbits around the Sun.
Galileo Galilei Used telescope to prove the heliocentric theory incorrect and promote the geocentric theory, but was forced to recant his theory when faced with prosecution by the Court of Inquisition.
Sir Isaac Newton Made the Laws of Gravity, which helped Kelper's theory of planetary motion as orbits depend on the gravitational force exerted by thr mass of an object like the Sun and a planet.
William Harvey Discovered blood circulates throughout the body in a closed system.
Johann Sebastian Bach Belonged to a family of musicians, became the director of church misic at the church of Leipzig. He was the composer of the Baroque family.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Romantic author who wrote "The Sorrows of the Young Werther", and a famous classical composer.
Eugene DelaCroix A prominent French Romantic artist who used light and interrelated color. He is known for theatricality and movement in his paintings. Famous piece: "The Death of Sardanapalus"
Romanticism A movement in literature, art, and music during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Movement focused on the beauty of nature and exposing human emotion.
Miguel de Cervantes He was a Spanish author, playwright, and poet.He helped come up with a new form of literature and his famous novel is "Don Quixote."
New Model Army Formed in 1645 by the parliamentarians in the English Civil war, and was disbanded in 1660 after the restoration. Led by Oliver Cromwell.
English Bill of Rights The English Parliament created a Bill that list of things that certain things could not be done, like no taxing without the consent of Parliament.
The Glorious Revolution William and Mary were brought into England to overthrow the King. King James had flee. The results were that Will and Mary signed the English Bill of Rights which limted royal power. England became a constitutional monarchy. Achieved without bloodshed.
English Civil War A series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists over, principally, the manner of England's government
Created by: Avatar25